To refer to this please cite it in this way :

  • Cheryl Walker, Hostages in Republican Rome, Appendix 1A: Historical and Legendary Hostages, pp. 214-244, http://chs.harvard.edu/publications.sec/online_print_books. Center for Hellenic Studies, Washington, DC. 1980, repub. 2005

Appendix 1A : Historical and Legendary Hostages [214-244]

The following lists comprise all the references to hostages and hostageship found in the ancient authors who are cited in the bibliography. In the first (Appendix 1.A.) are all historical and legendary/historical cases; they have been arranged in chronological order and assigned a reference number. Besides the basic data of donor and recipient, each incident is classified into one of the four categories: bilateral exaction, formal unilateral exaction between governments, private contract, and extralegal seizure. The vocabulary used of the agreement is then listed, followed by the sources for the episode.1 Because the space on a page is limited, the remaining information on historical and semi-historical exactions is compiled in the second part of this appendix (Appendix 1. B.) which is arranged according to the stage at which it occurred: the period of the actual delivery, the period of detention, and the termination and aftermath of the exaction.

Key to Abbreviations:

No exaction occurred; proposal rejected or generosity emphasized Discussed in text; see above, pp. 127-128 No information Male Female Recipient Donor Other Delivery date; see above, pp. 58-59. Mutatio obsidum indicated; see above, pp. 67-72. Total period of exaction indicated; see above, pp. 66-67.
# Year From To Type Source other
  Terminology
1 legendary Hyperboreans Hercules X Dion. Hal. 1.43.1  
  X
2 legendary Athens Crete X Plut.Theseus 19.5-6  
  X
3 legendary Aborigines / Trojans Aborigines / Trojans Exchange Dion. Hal. 1.59.1-2; 73.2  
  σσυνθ?και; ?μολογ?α; συνθ?μενοι; π?στεις
4 legendary Sabines Rome Extralegal Plut.Rom. 16.2  
  X
5 legendary Caenina Rome X Dion. Hal. 2.34.1  
  X
6 legendary Veii Rome Treaty Dion. Hal. 2.55.5-6; 56.3  
  σπονδα?
        Treaty Plut. Rom. 25.4; 27.2  
  ?μολογ?α; φιλ?α
7 legendary Alba Longa Rome X Dion. Hal. 3.28.6  
  X
8 legendary Etruscans Rome Extralegal Dion. Hal. 3.57.1  
  X
9 509 B.C. Roman Army Republicans Extralegal Dion. 4.83.3  
  X
10 508 Rome Porsenna Extralegal Dion. Hal. 5.31.2  
  X
11.1 508 Rome Porsenna Treaty Dion. Hal. 5.31-34  
  φιλ?α; ?νοχ?; σπονδα?; σπ?νδεται; καταλ?σει
11.2         Plut.Popl. 18-19;Moralia 250  
  ?μολογ?α; φιλ?α; π?στεις; διαλλαγε?ς
11.3         Tzetzes, Chil. 6, 201-23 (from Dio 4)  
  φ?λος
11.4         Polyaenus 8.31.1  
  συνθ?και; π?στον
11.5         Silius ItalicusPun. 10.488-501; 13.828.30  
  pax; foedus; fides
11.6         Serv.Comm.Aen. 8.646-51  
  pax; foedus
11.7         PlinyN.H. 34.13.28-29;39.139  
  foedus
11.8         Livy 2.13; 15.6; 9.11.6  
  condiciones pacis; foedus
11.9         Dio 45.31.1; Sen.Cons.,Ad.Marciam 16.2  
  X
11.10         Cic.De Off. 1.18.61;Oros. 2.5.3; Florus 1.4.10.3  
  amicitiae foedus
11.11         Val. Max. 3.2.2; Verg.Aen. 8.6 46-51; Juv. 8.264-65  
  X
11.12         DeViris Ill. 13  
  X
12.1 503 Pometia Rome X Livy 2.16.9 add 11
  X
12.2 495 Cora & Pometia Rome X Livy 2.22.2  
  X
12.3   Volsci Rome Treaty Dion. Hal. 6.25.2-3; 30.1  
  ?πιτρ?ποντες; παρασπονδε?ν; π?στεις
13.1 493 RomanPlebs Roman Patriciate Extralegal Dion. Hal. 6.53.1; 62.5 add 2
  X
13.2   Roman Patriciate RomanPlebs Private Dion. Hal. 6.84.2  
  ?ν?δοχοι; ?ν?χυρα
14 492 Rome Roman Exiles at Cumae Extralegal Dion. Hal. 7.2.3; 12.2  
  ??σια
15 after 492 "Deserter" Aristodemus of Cumae Private Dion. Hal. 7.10.5-6  
  X
16 490 Amyntas of Macedon Darius of Persia Treaty Justin 7.3.2  
  pax
17 488 Coriolanus Rome Extralegal Dion. Hal. 8.43.4  
  X
18 480 Thebes Sparta Extralegal Herod. 7.222; Plut.Moralia 865  
  X
19 479 Asiatic Greeks Xerxes of Persia X Diod. 11.36.6  
  X
20.1 479/8 Themistocles Sparta Private NeposThem. 7.2 add 1
  X
20.2 Sparta Sparta Themistocles Extralegal Plut.Them.19.2  
  X
21 478 Veii Rome Treaty Dion. Hal. 9.17.3 add 1
  ε?ρ?νη; σπ?νδεται; συνθ?και; συγκειμ?νοις
22 457 Opuntian Locrians Athens X Thuc. 1.108.3  
  X
23 457 Phocians Athens X Diod. 11.83.3  
  X
24 446/5 Chalcis Athens X Staatsvertrage, II: #155  
  X
25.1 441/0 Samians Athens Treaty Thuc. 1.115.3,5; Plut.Per. 25.1-3  
  ?π?στησαν
25.2         Diod. 12.27.2-3  
  X
26 440/39 Samians Athens Treaty Plut.Per. 28.1; Thuc. 1.117.3 add 1
  παραστ?ντων; ?μολογ?α
27 412 Athens Syracuse Treaty Thuc. 7.83.2; Plut.Nic. 27.2  
  σπε?σασθαι
28 408 Byzantium Athens Treaty Polyaenus 1.47.2  
  συν?θεντο; συνθ?και
29 fifth century Satyyrus of Bosporus Tirgatao of Maeotis treaty Polyaenus 8.55.1  
  ε?ρ?νη; συν?θετο; συνθ?μενοι
30 396 Campanian Aetna Syracuse Treaty Diod. 14.61.4-6  
  συμμαχ?αι; ?ποστ?ναι
31 394 Falerii Rome Extralegal Front.Strat. 4.4.1  
  X
32 394 Falerii Rome Treaty Livy 5.27.14  
  deditio; dicio; pax
33.1 389 Rome Latins Treaty Plut.Rom. 29.4-6;Cam. 33.2-7  
  φιλ?αι; ε?ρ?νη
33.2     Gauls X Plut.Moralia 313A  
  X
33.3     Latins X MacrobiusSat. 1.11.35-40  
  X
34 389/8 Rhegium Syracuse Treaty Diod. 14.106.2-3; 108.1-3 add 2
  X
35 ca. 383 Amyntas III of Macedon Illyrians X Diod. 16.2.2,4  
  X
36 381 Tusculum Rome Treaty Dion. Hal. 14.6 (9)  
  X
37 379 Charon X Private Plut.Pel. 9.5-7;Moralia 595  
  X
38 369 Alexander II of Macedon Illyrians X Justin 7.51  
  X
39.1 369 Alexander II of Macedon Thebes Treaty Justin 7.5.2-3; Plut.Pel. 26.4; Oros. 3.12.2  
  pax
39.2         Diod. 15.67.4  
  συμμαχ?α
40 368 Ptolemy of Macedon Thebes Treaty Plut.Pel. 27.3 add 1
  ?μολογ?α; φ?λος
39-40 X X X X Plut.Moralia 178C; Justin 6.9.7  
  X
41 362/1 Rheomithras Tachos of Egypt Private Xen.Cyrop. 8.8.4; Diod.15.92.1  
  X
42 361/0 Archytus et al. Plato Private Plut.Dion 18.2; 20.1  
  ?ν?δοχος
43 ca. 357 Latmians Hidrieus X Polyaenus 7.23.2  
  X
44 mid-fourth century - - Treaty Aeneas Tacticus 1.10.23-25  
  -
45 351 Cersobleptes Philip II ? Treaty Aesch.Emb. 81  
  X
46 350/49 Egyptians Persians X Diod. 16.48.3  
  X
47 334/3 Memnon Darius III Private Diod. 17.23.5  
  X
48 331 Sparta Antipater Treaty Diod. 17.73.5; Aesch.Ctesipho 133; Plutr. Moralia 235 B-C; Athen. 15.681C  
  X
49 329/8 Mardians Alexander III Treaty Diod. 17.76.8  
  X
50 326 Nysa Alexander III Treaty Plut.Alex. 58.5  
  φ?λος
51 ca. 326 Indians Alexander II Treaty Polyaenus 4.3.30  
  σπεισ?μενος?
52 326 S. Italy Alexander of Epirus X Livy 8.24.5  
  X
53 326 Lucanians Samnites Treaty Livy 8.27.10  
  societas
54.1 321 Rome Samnites Treaty Livy 9.4.3-5.14; 12.9; 14.14-16; 15.3, 7  
  Condiciones pacis aequae; foedus; deditio; sponsio; pactio
54.2         Gellius 2.19.8, 17.2.21; 21.36  
  foedus; arrabo
54.3         Oros. 3.15.5-6  
  foedus; pactio
54.4         Dio 8.19; Zonar. 7.26  
  συνθ?και; ?μολογ?α; σπονδα?
55.5         AppianSamn. 4.4, 6  
  ε?ρ?νη; συνθ?σομαι
55 320 Antigonus Eumenes Private Plut.Eumenes 10.2-3 add 4
  X
56 319 Cappadocians X X Plut.Eumenes 12.2  
  X
57 319 Ferentani Rome Treaty Livy 9.16.1  
  deditio
58 318/317 Canusini & Teates Rome Treaty Livy 9.20.4; 20.7  
  deditio
59 317 Phocion Athens Private NeposPhocian 2.4  
  X
60 315 Amathusii Seleucus X Diod. 19.62.6  
  X
61 315 Asander of Caria Antigonus Treaty Diod. 19.75.1-2  
  συνθ?και; διελ?σατο; φ?λος
62 312 Nabataean Arabs Demetrius Treaty Diod. 19.98.1  
  ?μολογηθε?σας; συνθ?σις
63 308 Agathocles Ophelas Treaty Polyaenus 5.3.4  
  X
64 306 Agathocles Deinocrates Private Diod. 20.79.4  
  ?μολογ?αι
65 X Antigonus Gauls Treaty Polyaenus 4.6.17  
  συνθ?μενος?
66 305 Rhodes Demetrius Treaty Diod. 20.82.3  
  X
67 304 Rhodes Demetrius Treaty Diod. 20.99.3; 107.4  
  συν?θεντο; διαλ?σασθαι; ε?ρ?νη
68 303 Metapontum Cleonymus Treaty Diod. 20.104.3; Athen. 13.605D-E  
  φ?λος
69 299 Nequinian traitors Rome Private Livy 10.10.3  
  X
70.1 298 Lucanians Rome Treaty Dion. Hal. 17.1-3  
  φιλ?α; συνθ?και;σ?μμαχοι
70.2         Livy 10.11.13  
  foedus; fides
70.3         Warmington,ROL 4:2  
  X
71 294 Bruttians Agathocles Treaty Diod. 21.8 add 2
  διαλ?σις
72 289 Syracuse Carthage Treaty Diod. 21.18.1  
  διαλ?σασθαι
73 286 Demetrius Seleucus Treaty Plut.Demetrius 48.1  
  X
74 285 Antigonus Seleucus Private Plut.Demetrius 51.2;Moralia 183C  
  X
75 281 Tarentum Pyrrhus Extralegal Zonar. 8.2  
  X
76 ca. 280 Gauls Ptolemy Ceraunus Treaty Justin 24.5.3  
  pax, fides
77 273 Antigonus Argos Treaty Plut.Pyrrhus 31.2  
  ?μολ?γει
78 269 Samnites Rome X Zonar. 8.7  
  X
79 263/2 Tyndarus Carthage X Diod. 23.5  
  X
80 243/2 Hecatompylus Carthage Treaty Diod. 24.10.2  
  X
81 241 Carthage Rome Treaty Zonar. 8.17  
  σ?μβασις; ?μολ?γηται; συνθ?μενος
82 ? 241 ? Sicilians ? Carthage X Naevius 7.41-43 (Warmington)  
  X
83 241 Mercenaries Carthage Extralegal Polybius 1.68.3  
  X
84 ? 230's Sparta X X Plut.Moralia 215B  
  X
85 225 Achaean League Cleomenes Private Plut.Cleom. 17.1;Aratus 39.2  
  X
86 225 Argos Cleomenes Treaty Plut.Cleom. 17.5  
  συμμαχ?αι; ?γεμον?α
87 225/4 Achaean League Antigonus Doson Treaty Plut.Cleom. 19.4;Aratus 38.6; 42.3  
  συμμαχ?α
88 223/2 Cleomenes Ptolemy III X Plut.Cleom. 22.3-7; 38  
  X
89 ca. 220 Salmatis Hannibal Treaty Plut.Moralia 248E-249B; Polyaenus 7.48.1  
  συν?θεντο; ?μολ?γησαν; συγκε?μενα
90 219 Messene Achaean League Treaty Polybius 4.9.5  
  (magistrates' agreement)
91 218 Colophon & Teos Attalus Treaty Polybius 5.77.6  
  συνθ?και
92 218 Spain Carthage Extralegal Livy 21.21.11-13  
  X
93.1 218 Boii Rome Treaty Polybius 3.40.7, 10; 67.6-7  
  ??π?στησαν…?γκαταλιπ?ντες το?ς ?μ?ρους
93.2         Livy 21.25.7  
  fides
93.3         Front.Strat. 1.8.6  
  deficere
94 218 Alpine tribe Hannibal Treaty Polybius 3.52.5-7; Livy 21.34.3-4  
  φιλ?α; amicitia
95 218 Illergetes Rome Treaty Livy 21.61.5,7  
  dicio et ius
96 217 Spain Rome Treaty Livy 22.20.11; 21.7  
  dicio et imperium
97 217 Spain Hannibal Treaty Polybius 3.98.99; Livy 22.2.4-18; Zonar. 9.1  
  defectio
98 217 Sardinia & Corsica Rome X Livy 22.31.1  
  X
99 217 Pinnes of Ilyria Rome X Livy 22.33.5  
  X
100 217/6 Campania Rome Extralegal Livy 23.4.8; 7.2; 31.10  
  X
101 215 Sardinia Rome Treaty Livy 23.41.6-7  
  deditio
102 215 Rhegium Hannibal Extralegal Livy 24.1.7-8  
  X
103 214 Syracuse Hippocrates & Epicydes Extralegal Livy 24.31.12-13  
  X
104 212 Tarentum & Thurii Rome X Livy 25.7.11-8.3; 15.7  
  defectio
105 210 Blattius Rome Private AppianHann. 47  
  X
106.1 211 Andobales Hasdrubal X Polybius 9.11.4  
  X
106.2 209 Spain Carthage Treaty? Polybius 10.8.3; 18.3-15; 20.8; 34; 35.6; 38.1-2.4  
  συνθ?και
106.3       X AppianHisp. 19, 23; Diod. 26.21; Livy 26.42.3; 43.4; 47.4; 49.1; 51.1; Val. Max. 4.3.1; Eutr. 3.15.3-4  
  X
107 208 Arretium Rome X Livy 27.24.1-5 add 2
  X
108.1 206 Illergetes Rome Treaty Livy 28.34.7-10  
  deditio
108.2         Eutr. 3.17  
  amicitia
109 206 Masinissa Scipio Private Livy 28.35.4 add 1
  X
110 205 Spain Rome Treaty Livy 29.3.5; AppianHisp. 38  
  pax
111.1 203 Carthage Rome Treaty Polybius 15.8.7  
  συνθ?και
111.2 201 Carthage Rome Treaty Polybius 15.18.8  
  προτεινομ?νων
111.3         AppianLib. 54; 79  
  συνθ?και; ε?ρ?νη; ?νοχα?-->φιλ?α,συμμαχ?α
111.4         Dio 17.82  
  διωμολογημ?να; ε?ρ?νη; σ?μβασις; φιλ?α
111.5         Zonar. 9.14  
  συνθ?και; ?μολογ?αι; ε?ρ?νη; σ?μβασις
111.6         Livy 30.37.6; 32.2.3-4; 26.5-18; 40.34.14; 45.14.5;per. 32  
  indutiae pax; in fide
111.7         NeposHann. 7.2  
  pax
112 200 Achaean League Philip V Extralegal Livy 31.25.8 add 6
  X
113 197 Flamininus Philip V Private Plut.Moralia 197A  
  X
114.1 197/6 Philip V Rome Treaty Polybius 18.39.5-6; 44.1; AppianMac. 9.2  
  ?νοχα?-->διαλ?σεις; ε?ρ?νη
114.2         Dio 18.60; Zonar. 9.16  
  ?σπε?σατο; ε?ρ?νη
114.3         Livy 33.13.14-15; 30.10; 34.52.9; 35.31.5; 36.35.13; 37.25.12; 40.15.8  
  indutiae pax
114.4         Eutr. 4.2.2; Justin 30.4.17; Oros. 4.20.2  
  pax
114.5         De Viris Ill. 51; Plut.Aratus 54.2  
  X
114.6         Plut.Flam. 9.5  
  διαλ?σεις; ?πιιτρ?ψας; καταλ?εται
114.7 194/3 Philip V Rome Treaty Diod. 28.15.1; Eutr. 4.2.3; Oros. 4.20.2  
  X
114.8 191 Philip V Rome Treaty Eutr. 4.3.3.; Plut.Flam. 14.2;De Viris Ill. 51  
  X
114.9         AppianMac. 9.5;Syr. 20, 23  
  X
114.1         Zonar. 9.19  
  ?μολογ?αι
114.11         Polybius 21.3.3; 11.9-10  
  π?στις?
115 197 Corinth Philip V Extralegal Livy 33.14.2 add 10
  X
116 197 Liguria Rome Treaty Livy 33.22.9  
  deditiones sine ullo pignore
117.1 195 Ilergetes Rome Extralegal Livy 34.12.7  
  X
117.2   Spain Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 41; Polyaenus 8.17.1  
  X
118 195 Sparta Nabis Extralegal Livy 34.27.7-8; 32.12 add 1
  X
119.1 195 Sparta Rome Treaty Livy 34.35.11; 40.4; 52.9  
  indutiae pax
119.2         DeViris Ill. 51; Eutr. 4.2.3; Oros. 4.20.2  
  fides
119.3 191 Sparta Rome Treaty Polybius 21.1.1-3; 3.3-4; 11.9-10; Livy 37.25.12  
  π?στεις?
120 191 Aearnania Antiochus III Extralegal Livy 36.11.11 add 2
  X
121 191 Boii Rome Treaty Livy 36.39.3; 40.3  
  deditio
122.1 190/89 Antiochus III Rome Treaty Polybius 21.17.8, 11  
  ε?ρ?νη; φιλ?α
122.2         AppianSyr. 38  
  φ?λος, προ?τε?νομεν
122.3         Diod. 29.10  
  ε?ρ?νη
122.4         Livy 37.45.16, 20  
  pax
122.5 188 Antiochus III Rome Treaty Polybius 21.42.14, 22  
  φιλ?α; συνθ?και
122.6         Livy 38.38.9,15; 42.6.9  
  foedus; amicitia; societas
122.7         Eutr. 4.4.3; Justin 31.8.8  
  pax
122.8         AppianSyr. 39  
  ε?ρ?νη; φιλ?α; συνθ?και
122.9         Zonar. 9.20  
  συγκειμ?νοις; ?σπε?σατο
122.1 187-175 Seleucus IV Rome Treaty Zonar. 9.21; 25; Athen. 10. 438D; Livy 42.6.9; 44.19.8;per. 41; Justin 34.32  
  X
122.11 175-162 Seleucus IV & Antiochus IV Rome Treaty AppianSyr. 45-47; 67; Polybius 31.2; 11-15; 33.19; Justin 34.3.6-9; Diod. 31.18; Zonar. 9.25; Livyper. 46  
   
123.1 189 Aetolian League Rome Treaty Polybius 21.32.10-11 add 10
  διαλ?σεις; ε?ρ?νη
123.2         Livy 38.11.6  
  pax; foedus
123.3         Zonar. 9.21  
  ?νοχα?-->ε?ρ?νη
124 189 Cephallanian Cities (Same, Palensians, Cranii) Rome Treaty Livy <38.28.6;> 38.28.9; 29.11 add 2
  deditio; pax
125 184 Cydonia Charmion X Polybius 22.15.2-6  
  X
126 181 Petra Philip V Treaty Livy 40.22.14  
  deditio
127 181 Thrace Philip X Livy 20.24.3  
  X
128 181 Ligurian Ingauni Rome Treaty Livy 40.28.6  
  dicio
129 181 Corsica Rome Treaty Livy 40.34.12  
  X
130 180 Ligurian Apuani Rome Treaty Livy 40.38.5  
  X
131.1 180/79 X Pharnaces X Polybius 25.2.6  
  X
131.2   Pharnaces Eumenes & Ariarathes Treaty Polybius 25.2.13-14  
  διαλ?σεις; ε?ρ?νη
132 179 Munda Rome X Livy 40.47.2 add 1
  X
133 179 Certima Rome Extralegal Livy 40.47.10  
  X
134 177 Histrians Rome Treaty Llivy 41.10.4; 11.9  
  pax; dicio
135 176 Sardinia Rome Treaty Livy 41.17.3  
  dicio
136 173 Aetolians Aetolians Exchange Livy 42.5.12  
  fides reconciliationis
137 172 Perseus Marcius Treaty Livy 42.39.6-7  
  nequaquam ex dignitate pari
138 171 Tripolis Larisa (Roman allies) X Livy 42.53.6-7  
  X
139 170 Uscanan "traitors" Ap. Claudius Private Livy 43.10.3  
  X
140 169 Aetolian League Rome X Polybius 28.4.2,7,13; Livy 43.17.6  
  X
141 169 Judaea Antiochus IV Treaty Diod. 34/35.1  
  διαλ?σις
142 169 Penestae & Parthini Rome Treaty Livy 43.21.2-3  
  amicitia cum fide
143 169 Agassae Rome Treaty Livy 44.7.5  
  tradentibus sese ipsis
144.1 168 Genthius / Perseus Perseus / Genthius Exchange Polybius 29.3-4.6  
  συμμαχ?α
144.2         Livy 44.23.2-9  
  foedus
145.1 168 Eumenes Perseus Treaty Polybius 29.8.5-6  
  προτειν?μενα; συνετ?θετο
145.2         Livy 44.25.7-8  
  fides
146 168 Perseus Gauls Treaty Livy 44.26.11  
  X
147 168 X X X Livy 44.35.3  
  X
148.1 167 Thrace Perseus Treaty Polybius 30.17.1-4  
  κοινοπραγ?α
148.2       X Livy 45.42.5-12; Zonar 9.24  
  X
149.1 ca. 161 Judaea Syria X Joseph.J.A. 13.17 add 1
  X
149.2 153/2 Judaea Syria X Joseph.J.A. 13.38-40  
  X
150 155-151/0 Oropus Athens Treaty Paus. 7.11.4-6 add 1
  ?μολογ?α; συγκε?μενα
151 154 Oxybii & Deciatae Massilia Treaty Polybius 33.10.12  
  παρ?δωκαν σφ?ς α?το?ς
152 152 Ocilis Rome X AppianHisp. 48  
  π?λιν παρεστ?σατο
153 152 Nergobriges Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 48  
  συγκε?μνον; ?μολογημ?να; ε?ρ?νη
154 151 Celtiberians Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 50  
  ε?ρ?νη; διαλ?σεις
155 151 Belli, Titthi, Arevaci Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 50  
  ?πιτρ?πειν
156 151 Cauca Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 52  
  φ?λος
157 151 Intercatia Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 54  
  δι?λυσε
158.1 149 Carthage Rome Treaty Polybius 36.4.6; 5.6-9; 6.1-7.5; 36.11.3  
  ?πιτροπ?; ?νθομολ?γησις
158.2         Livyper. 49  
  deditio
158.3         Zonar. 9.26, 30  
  σπονδα?
158.4         Diod. 32.6.1-2  
  παρ?δοσις
158.5         AppianLib. 76-83; 92  
  συνθ?καις; φ?λος; σ?μμαχος; συνθ?σθαι; δ?γμα; ε?ρ?νη
159 145 Thrace Diegylis Extralegal Diod. 35.15.1 add 4
  X
160 ca. 144 Gaza Judaea Treaty Joseph.J.A. 13.153  
  συνθ?μενος φιλ?αν
161 143 or later Numantia & Termessus Rome Treaty Diod. 33.16.1  
  διαλ?σεως; ε?ρ?νη; φ?λοι; σ?μμαχοι; ?μολογ?α
162 143/2 Maccabaei Tryphon Treaty Joseph.J.A. 13.204-206  
  X
163 141 Malia Rome X AppianHisp. 77  
  X
164 139 Numantia Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 79  
  συνθεμ?νων; ?πιτρεψ?ντων; συνθ?και
165 137 Transdurian Tribes Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 72  
  α?το?ς ?νδιδ?ντων
166 136/5 Talabriga Rome Treaty AppianHisp. 73  
  α?το?ς διδ?ντων
167 134 Judaea Antiochus VII Treaty Joseph.J.A. 13.247  
  X
168 Between 140 & 96 Armenia Parthia X Strabo 11.14.15C532; Justin 38.3.1  
  X
169 109 Numidia Rome Treaty Sall.Jug. 54.6  
  deditio
170.1 108 Jugurtha Rome Treaty Oros. 5.15.7  
  deditio
170.2       Treaty Dio. 26.89  
  ε?ρ?νη; διελ?σατο
171.1 107 Rome Tigurini Treaty Livyper. 65 add 1
  pacti
171.2         Oros. 5.15.24  
  foedus
172 91 Italian Confederates Italian Confederates Exchange AppianB.C. 1.38 add 1
  π?στις
173 90 Jugurtha Rome X AppianB.C. 1.42  
  X
174 90 Popaedius Rome X Appian B.C. 1.44  
  ?ν?χυρα
175 86 Chios Pontus Treaty AppianMith. 46-47  
  X
176 85 Placentia Carbo X Val. Max. 6.2.10  
  X
177 84 Italian towns Carbo X Livyper. 84  
  fides
178 83 Sulla Scipio Treaty AppianB.C. 1.85  
  ε?ρ?νη; συμβ?σεων; σπονδα?
179 77 Contrebia Sertorius Treaty Livy 91.18  
  X
180.1 ca. 77 Iberia Sertorius Extralegal Plut.Sert. 10.3; 14.2; 25.4  
  X
180.2         AppianB.C. 1.114  
   
181 75 Isaura Nova Rome Treaty Sall.Hist. II. 87B-D (Mb)  
  deditio; pax
182 ca. 75 Judaean Neighbors Judaea X Joseph.J.A. 13.409  
  X
183 75/4 Pirates Cities ransoming Julius Caesar Private Vell. Pat. 2.42.1  
  X
184.1 70/69 Crete Rome X Diod. 40.1.2-3  
  δ?γμα; προτατ?μενα
184.2         Dio 30-35  
  ?μολογ?σαι; σπονδα?
184.3         AppianSic. 6.1  
  διαλλαγ?ν
185 67 Cretan Pirates Rome Treaty Cic.De Imperio Cn. Pompei 12.35 add 2
  deditio
186.1 65 Artoces of Iberia Rome Treaty Dio 37.2.5-7; Florus 1.40.28  
  ε?ρ?νη; συνηλλ?γη
186.2   Iberians and Albanians Rome Treaty AppianMith. 103  
  X
186.3 61 East Rome Treaty AppianMith. 117; PlutoPomp. 45.4  
  X
187.1 63 Antioch Mithradates X Eutr. 6.14.2 add 2
  X
187.2   Asia Minor Mithradates X AppianMith. 103, 113  
  X
188 63 Pompey Catilinarians Extralegal Plut.Cic. 18.1 add 1
  διαλ?σεων
189.1 61 Aedui Sequani & Germans Treaty CaesarB.G. 1.31.7-15; 35.3; 36.5; 37.2; 43.9; 44.2; 6.12.4, 6; 7.54.3  
  dicio; imperium; servitus; pax
189.2   Aedui & Sequani Germans X Dio 38.34.2, 5  
  X
190 58 Sequani / Helvetii Helvetii / Sequani Exchange CaesarB.G. 1.9.4; 19.1 add 1
  X
191.1 58 Helvetii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 1.14.6-7  
  pax; συν?βησαν
191.2         AppianGall. 15  
  σπονδα?
192 58 Helvetii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 1.27.3; 28.2  
  deditio
193 57 Belgae Belgae Exchange CaesarB.G. 2.1.1  
  coniurare
194 57 Remi Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 2.3.3; 5.1  
  fides et potestas
195 57 Suessiones Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 2.13.1  
  deditio
196 57 Bellouaci Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 2.15.1-2  
  pax; fides
197 57 Transrhene Tribes Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 2.35.1  
  X
198 57 Ubii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 4.16.5; 6.9.6-7  
  amicitia; deditio; fides
199 57/6 Nantuates, Seduni, & Veragri Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 3.1.4; 2.5; 3.1  
  pax; deditio
200.1 56 Veneti et al. Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 3.8.2, 5; 10.2  
  deditio
200.2         Dio 39.40.1; Oros. 6.8  
  deditarum gentium
201 56 Aquitani Aquitani Exchange CaesarB.G. 3.23.2 add 1
  coniurare
202 56 Sotiates Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 3.23.1  
  deditionis condicio
203 56 Aquitani Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 3.27.1  
  deditio
204 55 Transrhene Tribes Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 4.18.3  
  pax; amicitia
205 55 Morini Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 4.22.2  
  fides
206.1 55 Britons Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 4.21.5; 27.1-6; 31.1  
  imperium; pax
206.2       Treaty Florus 1.45.17  
  X
206.3 55 Britons Rome Treaty Caesar 4.36.2; 38.4  
  pax
206.4         Dio 39.52.1-3; 40.1.2  
  σπε?σαθαι; συναλλαγ?
206 or 207 or 210 or 211 55/54 Britons Rome Treaty Strabo 4.5.3C200 add 3
  X
          Suet.Julius 25.2; Eutr. 6.17.3  
  X
207 54 Pirustae Rome X CaesarB.G. 5.1.8 add 1
  X
208 54 Traveri Rome X CaesarB.G. 5.4.1-2  
  X
209 54 Gaul Rome Extralegal CaesarB.G. 5.5.4  
   
210.1 54 Trinobantes Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 5.20.3-4  
  deditio
210.2         Oros. 6.9.8-9  
  dediderunt; foedus
211.1 54 Cassivellaunus Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 5.22.4; 23.1 add 1
  deditio
211.2         Plut.Caesar 23.3  
  πολ?μ? τ?λος ?π?θηκεν
211.3         Dio 40.3.2  
  κατελ?σατο
211.4         Cic.Ep. Ad Att. 4.18.5  
  X
212 54 Eburones Aduatuci X CaesarB.G. 5.27.2 add 3
  X
213 54 Gaul Rome X CaesarB.G. 47.2  
  X
214 53 Treveri Germans Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.2.2  
  X
215 53 Nervii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.3.2  
  deditio
216 53 Senones Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.4.4  
  X
217 53 Carnutes Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.4.5  
  X
218 53 Menapii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.6.3  
  pax
219 53 Ubii Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 6.9.6-7; cf. 4.16.5  
  deditio; fides
220 52 Gaul Gaul Exchange CaesarB.G. 7.2.2  
  fides; sanciatur
221 52 Gaul Vercingetorix X CaesarB.G. 7.4.7; 7.2; 7.64.1  
  potestas; imperium
222 52 Vellaundodunum Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 7.11.2  
  deditio
223 52 Noviodunum Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 7.12.3-4  
  X
224.1 52 Gaul Rome X CaesarB.G. 7.55.2, 6; 7.63.3  
  X
244.2         Dio 40.38.2  
  X
225 52 Arverni Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 7.90.2 add 1
  X
226.1 51 Gaul Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 8.3.5; 27.1; 38.2; 46.2  
  amicitia; fides
226.2         Oros. 6.12.4  
  sponsio; servitus
227 51 Bellovaci Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 8.20.2; 23.1-2 add 1
  X
228 51 Carnutes Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 8.31.4  
  deditio
229 51 Commius Rome Treaty CaesarB.G. 8.48.8-9  
  X
230 51 Tebarani Rome X Cic.Ep. ad Fam. 15.4.10  
  X
231 49 Spain Pompeian faction Extralegal CaesarB.C. 1.74.5  
X
232 49 Afranius & Petreius Caesar Private CaesarB.C. 1.84.2  
  X
233 49 Apollonia Staberius X CaesarB.C. 3.12.1-2  
  X
234 by 47 Phanagoreans Pharnaces Treaty AppianMith. 120  
  φιλ?α
235 46 Africa Pompeians X Bellum Africum 26.5  
  servitus
236 45 Illyrians Rome Treaty AppianIll. 13  
  X
237.1 44 Antony & Lepidus Caesar's Assassins Private Livyper. 116  
  X
237.2         Dio 44.34.6  
  συν?βησαν
237.3         AppianB.C. 2.142  
  X
237.4   Antony Caesar's Assassins Private Cic.Phil. 1.1.2; 1.13.31; 2.36.90  
  pax
237.5         Vell. Pat. 2.58.3  
  pax; fidem
237.6         AppianB.C. 3.15  
  X
237.7         Plut.Brutus 19.2;Ant. 14.1  
  X
238 20-May-43 Lepidus Plancus Private Cic.Ep. ad Fam. 10.17.3 add 6
  fides; societas
239 43 Octavian Republicans Extralegal AppianB.C. 3.91  
  X
240 43 Malichus ? Roman Syria ? Treaty Joseph.J.A. 14.290  
  ?ποστ?σας
241 38 Antiochus of Commagene Rome Treaty Dio 49.22.2  
  συνθ?και
242 35 Rome Sextus Pompey Extralegal AppianB.C. 5.137  
  X
243 35 Siscia Rome Treaty Dio 49.37.2, 6  
  ?μολ?γησαν
244 35 Metulum Rome Treaty AppianIll. 21  
  X
245 35-34 Segesta Rome Treaty AppianIll. 22-24  
  X
246 33 Dalmatians Rome Treaty AppianIll. 28  
  X
247 33 Derbani Rome Treaty Appian Ill. 28  
  X
248 33 Illyrians Rome Treaty Appian Ill. 28  
  συνθ?και; συν?θεντο
249 30 East Antony X Dio 51.16.1-2  
  X
250 30 or 27/6 Phraates IV Rome Extralegal Dio 51.18.3; 53.33.1-2 Justin 42.5.6-11; Mon. Anc. 32  
  X
251 25 Cantabrians Rome Treaty Florus 2.33.51-52  
  X
252.1 16 Sugambri, Usipetes, & Tencteri Rome Treaty Dio 54.20.6  
  σπονδα?
252.2 A.D. 9 Sugambri     Strabo 7.1.4C291  
  X
253.1 9-Oct Phraates IV Rome X** Vell. Pat. 2.94.4 add 1
  obsides (at wrong year)
253.2         Strabo 6.42C288; 16.1.28C749  
  φιλ?α; ?ξομηρευσ?μενος
253.3         Oros. 6.21.27  
  foedus; obsides
253.4         Svet.Aug. 21.3; 43.4  
  obsides
253.5         Eutr. 7.9  
  obsides
253.6         Dio 55.10.20; 10a.4  
  X
253.7         Mon. Anc. 32  
  amicitia per pignora
253.8         Joseph.J.A. 18.39-52  
  ?μηρε?α; ε?ρ?νη·
254 A.D. 8 Breucians Bato X Dio 55.34.4-6  
add 7 X
255.1 Between 43 B.C. & A.D. 14 Some Barbarians Rome Treaty Suet.Aug. 21.2  
  pax; fides
255.2 Of Uncertain Years:            
256 X Thessalians Phocians X Aesch.Emb. 140  
add 1 X
257 X Epidaurus Rome X Front.Strat. 2.11.1  
  X