For my uncle, Harry Kagan


I have presented parts of this book at the École Normale Supérieure (Paris), Brown, Princeton, Harvard, Bryn Mawr, the 1998 meeting of the American Society of Legal Historians in Toronto, the New York Classical Club, Johns Hopkins, the Whitney Humanities Center at Yale, and the Bibliotheca Classica in St. Petersburg. My gratitude to those audiences, and also to Stephen Colvin, Martin Devecka, Adriaan Lanni, and Lene Rubinstein for advice on specific points. Joseph Roisman read the manuscript for the Hellenica series and gave me pages of corrigenda et addenda that made for a much better book. I thank Roberta Engleman for preparing the indices. Mary Bellino’s editorial work repaired more mistakes than I care to remember.
When they were available at the time of writing, I use the translations of the Attic orators in the Oratory of Classical Greece series (general editor, Michael Gagarin), published by the University of Texas Press. Translations from Aristototle’s Rhetoric by George A. Kennedy are taken from his Aristotle, On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse (Oxford University Press, 1991). I am grateful to the University of Texas Press and Oxford University Press for permission to quote from these translations. Unless otherwise indicated, all other translations are my own.