Appendix IV

Full-verse speech concluding formulas

All speech concluding formulas that occur at least three times in the Homeric epics (presented in order of frequency, with most frequent first) are given below. The main verb (other than or in addition to “so s/he spoke” is highlighted.

Formulas Appearing Ten Times or More

ὣς οἳ μὲν τοιαῦτα πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀγόρευον
23x (8x Iliad, 15x Odyssey)
Now as these were speaking things like this to each other
ὣς ἔφατ’, οὐδ’ ἀπίθησε [nominative noun/epithet, subject]
23x (21x Iliad, 2x Odyssey)
So he spoke, nor did [subject] disobey him.
ὣς ἔφαθ’, οἳ δ’ ἄρα πάντες ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο σιωπῇ·
15x (10x Iliad, 5x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and all of them stayed stricken to silence
ὣς ἔφαθ’, οἳ δ’ ἄρα τοῦ μάλα μὲν κλύον ἠδ’ ἐπίθοντο
13x (7x Iliad, 6x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and they listened to him with care, and obeyed him.
ὣς ἔφατ’ [nom. sg. participle], τοῦ/τῆς δ’ ἔκλυε [nominative name/epithet, subject] [1]
11x (8x Iliad, 3x Odyssey)
Thus he spoke [doing X], and [subject] heard him
ὣς εἰπὼν [or εἰποῦσ ́] ὄτρυνε μένος καὶ θυμὸν ἑκάστου
11x (10x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
So s/he spoke, and stirred the spirit and strength in each man

Formulas Appearing between Five and Ten Times

ὣς ἔφατ’, ὦρτο δέ [nominative noun/epithet phrase, subject]
8x (7x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
So s/he spoke, and there rose up [subject]
ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας [or φωνήσασ’] ἀπέβη [nominative name/epithet, subject]
8x (5x Iliad, 3x Odyssey)
So spoke [subject], and went away
αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ τό γ’ ἄκουσε [nominative noun/epithet, subject]
8x (3x Iliad, 5x Odyssey)
When (he) had heard this, [subject] . . .
αὐτίκα δ’ [or ἦ ῥα καὶ] ἀμπεπαλὼν προΐει δολιχόσκιον ἔγχος [2]
7x Iliad
So he spoke, and balanced the spear far-shadowed, and threw it
ὣς φάτο [dative phrase, indirect object] ὑφ’ ἵμερον ὦρσε γόοιο
7x (2x Iliad, 5x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and in [dative] stirred a passion for grieving
ὣς ἔφατο κλαίουσ’ [or κλαίων], ἐπὶ δὲ [nom pl. subject with verb for “groan”]
7x Iliad
So s/he spoke, lamenting, and [subject] groaned in response
ὣς ἔφατ’ [nominative noun, subject], τοῖσιν δ’ ἐπιήνδανε μῦθος.
7x Odyssey
So [subject] spoke, and his word pleased all the rest of them
ἣ μὲν ἄρ’ ὣς εἰποῦσ’ ἀπέβη [nominative name/epithet, subject]
7x (5x Iliad, 2x Odyssey)
She spoke thus, [subject], and went away
ἧος ὃ ταῦθ’ ὥρμαινε κατὰ φρένα καὶ κατὰ θυμόν [3]
6x (3x Iliad, 3x Odyssey)
Now as he was pondering this in his heart and his spirit
ὣς φάτο [dative pronoun, possessive dative] θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ὄρινε
6x (5x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and stirred up the passion in the breast of [dative pronoun]
ὣς [verb for “spoke”; nominative name, subject] δὲ διὲκ [genitive, place] βεβήκει
6x Odyssey
So he spoke, but [subject] strode out through [place]
ἤτοι ὅ γ’ ὣς εἰπὼν κατ’ ἄρ’ ἕζετο· τοῖσι δ’ ἀνέστη [4]
6x (5x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
He spoke thus and sat down again, and among them stood up

Formulas Appearing Three to Five Times

ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας ἡγήσατο, τοὶ δ’ ἅμ’ ἕποντο
5x (2x Iliad, 3x Odyssey)
He spoke, and led the way, and the rest of them came on after him
ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας [or φωνήσασ’] ἡγήσατο [nominative name/epithet, subject]
5x (1x Iliad, 4x Odyssey)
So s/he spoke, [subject], and led the way
ὣς φάτο, [genitive pronoun] δ’ αὐτοῦ λύτο γούνατα καὶ φίλον ἦτορ
5x (1x Iliad, 4x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and in [genitive] the knees and the inward heart went slack
ὣς φάτο, καί ῥ’ ἔμπνευσε μένος [nominative name/epithet, subject]
4x (3x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
So [subject] spoke, and breathed into him enormous strength
ὣς ἔφατ’, αὐτίκα δὲ χρυσόθρονος ἤλυθεν Ἠώς
4x Odyssey [2 by primary narrator, 2 by Odysseus in Books 9-12]
So s/he spoke, and dawn of the golden throne came
ὣς εἰπὼν ὤτρυνε πάρος μεμαυῖαν Ἀθήνην
4x (3x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
Speaking so he stirred up Athene, who was eager before this
ὣς [verb for “spoke”; nominative name, subject] δὲ χολώσατο κηρόθι μᾶλλον
4x (1x Iliad, 3x Odyssey)
He spoke, and [subject] in his heart grew still more angry.
ὣς ἄρ’ ἐφώνησεν, τῇ δ’ ἄπτερος ἔπλετο μῦθος
4x Odyssey
So he spoke, and she had no winged words for an answer
ὣς ἔφαθ’, οἱ δ’ ἄρα πάντες ἐπῄνεον ἠδ’ ἐκέλευον
4x Odyssey
So he spoke, and they all approved what he said and urged it
ὣς εἰπὼν [or εἰποῦσ’] ἐν χερσὶ τίθει, ὃ δὲ δέξατο χαίρων
4x (3x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
So speaking, s/he put it into his hands, and he gladly received it.
ὣς ἔφαθ’, οἱ δ’ ἄρα πάντες ὀδὰξ ἐν χείλεσι φύντες Τηλέμαχον θαύμαζον, ὃ θαρσαλέως ἀγόρευε
3x Odyssey
So he spoke, and all of them bit their lips, in amazement at Telemachos and the daring way he had spoken to them.
ὣς ἔφαθ’, οἳ δ’ ἄρα πάντες ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἡδὺ γέλασσαν
3x (1x Iliad, 2x Odyssey)
So he spoke, and all of them laughed happily at him
ὣς ἔφατ’, Ἀργείοισι δ’ ἄχος γένετ’ εὐξαμένοιο
3x Iliad (all in Books 13 and 14)
He spoke, and sorrow came over the heart of the Argives at his vaunting
ὣς εἰπὼν ὃ μὲν αὖτις ἔβη θεὸς ἂμ πόνον ἀνδρῶν
3x Iliad
So he spoke and strode on, a god, through the mortals’ struggle.
ὣς φάτο, τὸν δ’ ἄχεος νεφέλη ἐκάλυψε μέλαινα
3x (2x Iliad, 1x Odyssey)
He spoke, and the dark cloud of sorrow closed over him.
ὣς εἰπὼν ὃ μὲν ἦρχ’, ὃ δ’ ἅμ’ ἕσπετο ἰσόθεος φώς
3x Iliad
He spoke, and led the way, and the other followed, a mortal like a god.

Footnotes

[ back ] 1. Participle is always εὐχόμενος (or -μένη, “praying”), except for one instance in Iliad 1 of δάκρυ χέων (weeping, 357) for Achilles addressing Thetis.
[ back ] 2. This is included in this appendix, although not in any of my data, because although only two examples of this verse have ἦ ῥα καὶ at the beginning, all the rest directly follow a verse that concludes a speech.
[ back ] 3. Two of these verses lack a speech immediately preceding them, although all follow a speech in the general vicinity
[ back ] 4. Not a single-verse speech concluding formula in the sense that it is a syntactically self-contained verse, as are all the others in this appendix. It is included here anyway because it generally forms part of a multi-verse passage that is syntactically separate from the verses immediately preceding and following it.