Christos Tsagalis, From Listeners to Viewers: Space in the Iliad
Part I: Viewing Simple Story Space in the Iliad
Chapter 1. The Base-Level Setting: The Battlefield
Chapter 2. Framing Spaces
Part II. Home is the Hero: Embedded Story Space
Chapter 3. Greece
Chapter 4. The Troad and Lycia
Part III. Paratopic Space: Similes and Visual Imagery
Chapter 5. Simile Space and Narrative Space
Chapter 6. The Cognitive Aspect of the Homeric Simile
Part IV. Descriptive Space
Chapter 7. Described Objects
Chapter 8. Ecphrastic Space
Appendix 1. Space in the Similes of the Iliad: The Visual Units
Appendix 2: Space in Similes Attested in Character Text
Chapter 2. Framing Spaces
The Achaean Camp, Troy, and the World of the Immortals
The Achaean Camp
The headquarters of Agamemnon and Achilles
ὑψηλήν—τὴν Μυρμιδόνες ποίησαν ἄνακτι
δοῦρ’ ἐλάτης κέρσαντες, ἀτὰρ καθύπερθεν ἔρεψαν
λαχνήεντ’ ὄροφον λειμωνόθεν ἀμήσαντες·
ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ μεγάλην αὐλὴν ποίησαν ἄνακτι
σταυροῖσιν πυκινοῖσι· θύρην δ’ ἔχε μοῦνος ἐπιβλής
εἰλάτινος, τὸν τρεῖς μὲν ἐπιρρήσσεσκον Ἀχαιοί,
τρεῖς δ’ ἀναοίγεσκον μεγάλην κληῗδα θυράων,
τῶν ἄλλων, Ἀχιλεὺς δ’ ἄρ’ ἐπιρρήσσεσκε καὶ οἶος—
But when they had got to the shelter of Peleus’ son: a towering
shelter the Myrmidons had built for their king, hewing
the timbers of pine, and they made a roof of thatch above it
shaggy with grass that they had gathered out of the meadows;
and around it made a great courtyard for their king, with hedgepoles
set close together; the gate was secured by a single door-piece
of pine, and three Achaians could ram it home in its socket
and three could pull back and open the huge door-bar; three other
Achaians, that is, but Achilleus all by himself could close it.
The Achaean wall
The literary topography of space: The funeral games for Patroklos
The contest area
The chariot race
Table 1: Order of participants in the chariot race (Iliad XXIII 287–538)
Duel in Armor
|A. ἔνθ’ Αἴας μὲν ἔπειτα κατ’ ἀσπίδα πάντοσ’ ἐΐσην νύξ’,||A. Then Aias on the shield [of Diomedes], the circular one on all sides [he] stabbed|
|B. οὐδὲ χρό’ ἵκανεν||B. but did not reach the skin,|
|C. ἔρυτο γὰρ ἔνδοθι θώρηξ||C. for the corselet inside it guarded him.|
|A. Τυδείδης δ’ ἄρ’ ἔπειτα ὑπὲρ σάκεος μεγάλοιο||A. Then the son of Tudeus, over the top of the huge shield,|
|B. αἰὲν ἐπ’ αὐχένι κῦρε||B. was always menacing the neck [of Ajax]|
|C. φαεινοῦ δουρὸς ἀκωκῇ||C. with the point of the shining spear|
Table 2: Order of participants in the weight-throwing contest (Iliad XXIII 826–849)
|1. First Introduction||2. Order of Throwing||3. Results|
|Telamonian Ajax||Telamonian Ajax||Leonteus|
|A. ἱστὸν δ’ ἔστησεν νηὸς κυανοπρῴροιο||and planted the mast pole|
|B. τηλοῦ ἐπὶ ψαμάθοις,||far away on the sands|
|C. ἐκ δὲ τρήρωνα πέλειαν||and a tremulous wild pigeon to it|
|D. λεπτῇ μηρίνθῳ δῆσεν ποδός||he tethered by a thin string attached to her foot|
|A. ὄρνιθος μὲν ἅμαρτε·…||He missed the bird …|
|B. αὐτὰρ ὃ μήρινθον βάλε πὰρ πόδα, τῇ δέδετ’ ὄρνις,||but … hit the string beside the foot where the bird was tied|
|C. ἀντικρὺ δ’ ἀπὸ μήρινθον τάμε πικρὸς ὀϊστός.||and straight through cut the string the bitter arrow|
|D. ἣ μὲν ἔπειτ’ ἤϊξε πρὸς οὐρανόν,||and she leapt towards the sky|
|E. ἣ δὲ παρείθη / μήρινθος ποτὶ γαῖαν·||while the string dropped and dangled / toward the ground|
|A. ὕψι δ’ ὑπὸ νεφέων εἶδε τρήρωνα πέλειαν·||Way up under the clouds he saw the tremulous pigeon|
|B. τῇ ῥ’ ὅ γε δινεύουσαν ὑπὸ πτέρυγος βάλε μέσσην.||and as she circled struck her under the wing in the body|
|C. ἀντικρὺ δὲ διῆλθε βέλος·||and the shaft passed clean through and out of her|
|D. τὸ μὲν ἂψ ἐπὶ γαίῃ / πρόσθεν Μηριόναο πάγη ποδός·||and dropped back on the ground and stuck before Meriones’ foot,|
|E. αὐτὰρ ἣ ὄρνις /… τῆλε δ’ ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ / κάππεσε·||but the bird … fell far away from there|
Table 3: Teukros’ and Meriones’ attempts in the archery contest
|1. Misses pigeon||1. Sees pigeon|
|2. Hits the string attached to the pigeon’s foot||2. Hits pigeon under the wing|
|3. Arrow pierces the string||3. Arrow pierces pigeon|
|4. Missed target (pigeon) flies to the sky||4. Arrow falls on the ground|
|5. Hit target (string) falls on the ground||5. Pigeon flies back to the mast pole but then falls down|
τοιῇδ’ ἀμφὶ γυναικὶ πολὺν χρόνον ἄλγεα πάσχειν·
αἰνῶς ἀθανάτῃσι θεῇς εἰς ὦπα ἔοικεν.
ἀλλὰ καὶ ὧς, τοίη περ ἐοῦσ’, ἐν νηυσὶ νεέσθω,
μηδ’ ἡμῖν τεκέεσσί τ’ ὀπίσσω πῆμα λίποιτο.”
“Surely there is no blame  on Trojans and strong-greaved Achaians
if for long time they suffer hardship for a woman like this one.
Terrible is the likeness of her face to immortal goddesses.
Still, though she be such, let her go away in the ships, lest
she be left behind, a grief to us and our children.”
The World of the Immortals
Spatial theography: Height and depth
ηὗρεν δ’ εὐρύοπα Κρονίδην ἄτερ ἥμενον ἄλλων
ἀκροτάτῃ κορυφῇ πολυδειράδος Οὐλύμποιο·
in the morning and went up to the tall sky and Olympos.
She found Kronos’ broad-browed son apart from the others
sitting upon the highest peak of rugged Olympos.
ἀκροτάτῃ κορυφῇ πολυδειράδος Οὐλύμποιο.
They found the son of Kronos sitting apart form the other
gods, upon the highest peak of rugged Olympos.
κρατὸς ἀπ’ Οὐλύμποιο πολυπτύχου· ἣ δ’ ἄρα πάντῃ
φοιτήσασα κέλευσε Διὸς πρὸς δῶμα νέεσθαι
But Zeus, from the many-folded peak of Olympos,
told Themis to summon all the gods into assembly. She went
everywhere, and told them to make their way to Zeus’ house.
Αἰγάς· ἔνθα δέ οἱ κλυτὰ δώματα βένθεσι λίμνης
χρύσεα μαρμαίροντα τετεύχαται, ἄφθιτα αἰεί.
ἔνθ’ ἐλθὼν ὑπ’ ὄχεσφι τιτύσκετο χαλκόποδ’ ἵππω
ὠκυπέτα, χρυσέῃσιν ἐθείρῃσιν κομόωντε,
χρυσὸν δ’ αὐτὸς ἔδυνε περὶ χροΐ, γέντο δ’ ἱμάσθλην
χρυσείην εὔτυκτον, ἑοῦ δ’ ἐπεβήσετο δίφρου.
βῆ δ’ ἐλάαν ἐπὶ κύματ’· ἄταλλε δὲ κήτε’ ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ
πάντοθεν ἐκ κευθμῶν, οὐδ’ ἠγνοίησεν ἄνακτα,
γηθοσύνῃ δὲ θάλασσα διίστατο· τοὶ δ’ ἐπέτοντο
ῥίμφα μάλ’, οὐδ’ ὑπένερθε διαίνετο χάλκεος ἄξων·
τὸν δ’ ἐς Ἀχαιῶν νῆας ἐΰσκαρθμοι φέρον ἵπποι.
ἔστι δέ τι σπέος εὐρὺ βαθείης βένθεσι λίμνης,
μεσσηγὺς Τενέδοιο καὶ Ἴμβρου παιπαλοέσσης·
ἔνθ’ ἵππους ἔστησε Ποσειδάων ἐνοσίχθων
λύσας ἐξ ὀχέων, παρὰ δ’ ἀμβρόσιον βάλεν εἶδαρ
ἔδμεναι· ἀμφὶ δὲ ποσσὶ πέδας ἔβαλε χρυσείας
ἀρρήκτους ἀλύτους, ὄφρ’ ἔμπεδον αὖθι μένοιεν
νοστήσαντα ἄνακτα· ὃ δ’ ἐς στρατὸν ᾤχετ’ Ἀχαιῶν.
He took three long strides forward, and in the fourth he came to his goal,
Aigai, where his glorious house was built in the waters’
depth, glittering with gold, imperishable forever.
Going there he harnessed under his chariot his bronze-shod horses,
flying-footed, with long manes streaming of gold; and he put on
clothing of gold about his own body, and took up the golden
lash, carefully compacted, and climbed up into his chariot
and drove it across the waves. And about him the sea beasts came up
from their deep places and played in his path, and acknowledged their master,
and the sea stood apart before him, rejoicing. The horses winged on
delicately, and the bronze axle beneath was not wetted.
The fast-running horses carried him to the ships of the Achaians.
There is a cave, broad and deep down in the gloom of the water,
lying midway between Tenedos and Imbros of the high cliffs.
There Poseidon the shaker of the earth reined in his horses,
and slipped them from the yoke, and threw fodder immortal before them
so they could eat, and threw around their feet golden hobbles
not to be broken or slipped from, so they would wait there steadfast
for their lord gone. And Poseidon went to the ships of the Achaians.
καὶ γὰρ ὃ θαυμάζων ἧστο πτόλεμόν τε μάχην τε,
ὑψοῦ ἐπ’ ἀκροτάτης κορυφῆς Σάμου ὑληέσσης
Θρηϊκίης· ἔνθεν γὰρ ἐφαίνετο πᾶσα μὲν Ἴδη,
φαίνετο δὲ Πριάμοιο πόλις καὶ νῆες Ἀχαιῶν.
ἔνθ’ ἄρ’ ὅ γ’ ἐξ ἁλὸς ἕζετ’ ἰών, ἐλέαιρε δ’ Ἀχαιούς
Τρωσὶν δαμναμένους, Διὶ δὲ κρατερῶς ἐνεμέσσα.
Neither did the powerful shaker of the earth keep blind watch;
for he sat and admired the fighting and the run of the battle,
aloft on top of the highest summit of timbered Samos,
the Thracian place; and from there all Ida appeared before him,
and the city of Priam was plain to see, and the ships of the Achaians.
There he came up out of the water, and sat, and pitied the Achaians
who were beaten by the Trojans, and blamed Zeus for it in bitterness.
Ἴδης ἐν κορυφῇσι παρὰ χρυσοθρόνου Ἥρης.
στῆ δ’ ἄρ’ ἀναΐξας, ἴδε δὲ Τρῶας καὶ Ἀχαιούς,
τοὺς μὲν ὀρινομένους, τοὺς δὲ κλονέοντας ὄπισθεν
Ἀργείους, μετὰ δέ σφι Ποσειδάωνα ἄνακτα·
Ἕκτορα δ’ ἐν πεδίῳ ἴδε κείμενον, ἀμφὶ δ’ ἑταῖροι
εἵαθ’· ὃ δ’ ἀργαλέῳ ἔχετ’ ἄσθματι, κῆρ ἀπινύσσων,
αἷμ’ ἐμέων, ἐπεὶ οὔ μιν ἀφαυρότατος βάλ’ Ἀχαιῶν.
But now Zeus wakened
by Hera of the gold throne on the high places of Ida,
and stood suddenly upright, and saw the Achaians and Trojans,
these driven to flight, the others harrying them in confusion,
these last Argives, and saw among them the lord Poseidon.
He saw Hektor lying in the plain, his companions sitting
around him, he dazed at the heart and breathing painfully,
vomiting blood, since not the weakest Achaian had hit him.