Shubha Pathak, Divine yet Human Epics: Reflections of Poetic Rulers from Ancient Greece and India
Note on Texts and Translations
Introduction. Defining Epics through Comparison
1. The Epic Identity of the Iliad and Odyssey: Pindar and Herodotus’ Lofty Legacy
2. The Epic Metaphor of the Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata: Ānandavardhana and Rājaśekhara’s Expedient Influence
3. Listening to Achilles and to Odysseus: Poetic Kings on the Ideal of Kléos in the Homeric Epics
4. Hearkening to Kuśa and Lava and to Nala: Poetic Monarchs on the Ideal of Dharma in the Hindu Epics
Conclusion. Affirmative and Interrogative Epics
Note on Texts and Translations
The classical sources that I have cited are found in the following editions, unless otherwise specified:
The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra, ed. and trans. R. P. Kangle, 2nd ed., 2 pts. (Bombay, 1969–1972).
Dhvanyāloka of Ānandavardhana, ed. and trans. K. Krishnamoorthy (Dharwar, 1974).
Herodoti Historiae, ed. Karl Hude, 3rd ed., 2 vols. (Oxford, 1927).
The Homeric Hymns, ed. T. W. Allen, W. R. Halliday, and E. E. Sikes, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1936).
Iliad, ed. David B. Monro and Thomas W. Allen, 3rd ed., vols. 1–2 of Homeri opera (Oxford, 1920).
The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara Edited with the Madhusūdanī Commentary by Sāhityāchārya Paṇḍit Madhusūdana Miśra, ed. Madhusudan Sharma, 3 pts. (Benares, 1931–1934).
The Mahābhārata, ed. Vishnu S. Sukthankar, S. K. Belvalkar, and P. L. Vaidya, 19 vols. (Poona, 1933–1966).
Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā: Die Saṃhitā der Maitrāyaṇīya-Śākhā, ed. Leopold von Schroeder, 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1881–1886; repr., Wiesbaden, 1970–1972).
Manu’s Code of Law: A Critical Edition and Translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra, ed. and trans. Patrick Olivelle, with the editorial assistance of Suman Olivelle (Oxford, 2005).
Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharatamuni with the Commentary Abhinavabhāratī by Abhinavaguptācārya, ed. R. S. Nagar, with the assistance of K. L. Joshi and M. A. Vedalankar, 4 vols. (Delhi, 1981–1984).
Odyssey, ed. Thomas W. Allen, 2nd ed., vols. 3–4 of Homeri opera (Oxford, 1917–1919).
Pindari carmina cum fragmentis, ed. Bruno Snell and Herwig Maehler, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1971–1975).
The Vālmīki-Rāmāyaṇa, ed. G. H. Bhatt and U. P. Shah, 7 vols. (Baroda, 1960–1975).
Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇam, ed. Ganga Prasad Upadhyaya (New Delhi, 1998).
Scholia vetera in Pindari carmina, ed. A. B. Drachmann, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1903–1927).
The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa of the Black Yajur Veda, ed. Rājendralāla Mitra, with the assistance of several learned paṇḍitas, 4 vols. (Calcutta, 1855–1870; repr., Osnabrück, 1981).
Taittirīya Saṃhitā with the Padapāṭha and the Commentaries of Bhaṭṭa Bhāskara Miśra and Sāyaṇācārya, ed. N. S. Sontakke and T. N. Dharmadhikari, 3 vols. (Poona, 1970–1990).
Hesiod. Theogony, ed. M. L. West (Oxford, 1966; repr., 1997).
Claudii Aeliani Varia Historia, ed. Mervin R. Dilts (Leipzig, 1974).
I have transliterated with diacritical marks both the Greek and the Sanskrit quotations in this comparative study so that they will be more accessible to readers who are not familiar with the original scripts of these languages, but still will be easily recognizable to readers who are. The transliterations of the quotations are accompanied by translations that are mine unless otherwise indicated. I generally have used the Latinate forms of Greek names, except in cases where the Latinizations appear less frequently in contemporary scholarly literature than do the Greek forms (for example, I refer to the Odyssey’s hero as “Odysseus” rather than as “Ulysses”).