John Curtis Franklin, Kinyras: The Divine Lyre
List of Figures
Conventions and Abbreviations
1. Kinyras and Kinnaru Part I: The Cult of Kinnaru
2. Instrument Gods and Musician Kings in Early Mesopotamia: Divinized Instruments 3. The Knr 4. Starting at Ebla: The City and Its Music 5. Mari and the Amorite Age: The City and Its Music 6. Peripherals, Hybrids, Cognates 7. Kinnaru of Ugarit 8. David and the Divine Lyre Part II: Kinyras on Cyprus
9. Kinyras the Kinyrist 10. Praising Kinyras 11. Lyric Landscapes of Early Cyprus 12. Kinyras the Lamenter 13. The Talents of Kinyras 14. Restringing Kinyras 15. Crossing the Water 16. The Kinyradai of Paphos Part III: Kinyras and the Lands around Cyprus
17. Kinyras at Pylos 18. The Melding of Kinyras and Kothar 19. Kinyras, Kothar, and the Passage from Byblos: Kinyras, Kinnaru, and the Canaanite Shift 20. Kinyras at Sidon? The Strange Affair of Abdalonymos 21. Syro-Cilician Approaches Appendices
Appendix A. A Note on ‘Balang’ in the Gudea Cylinders Appendix B. Ptolemy Khennos as a Source for the Contest of Kinyras and Apollo Appendix C. Horace, Cinara, and the Syrian Musiciennes of Rome Appendix D. Kinyrízein: The View from Stoudios Appendix E. The ‘Lost Site’ of Kinyreia Appendix F. Theodontius: Another Cilician Kinyras? Appendix G. Étienne de Lusignan and ‘the God Cinaras’ Balang-Gods, Wolfgang Heimpel Bibliography
List of Figures
All figures drawn by Glynnis Fawkes unless otherwise noted.
Figure 1. Detail from ‘Sea Peoples’ reliefs, Medinet Habu, reign of Ramses III (ca. 1184–1152). Drawn from Nelson et al. 1930, pl. 36–37.
Figure 2. ‘Harp treaty’, unprovenanced Mesopotamian cylinder seal, ca. fourteenth century. London, BM 89359. Drawn from MgB 2/2 fig. 108.
Figure 3. ‘Asiatic’ troupe with lyrist, tomb-painting, Beni-Hassan, Twelfth Dynasty, ca. 1900. Drawn from Shedid 1994 fig. 20.
Figure 4. Distribution map of Bronze Age lyres (after DCPIL). Individual images drawn by Bo Lawergren and numbered according to DCPIL figs. 1, 3–5, 8 (used with permission). Other drawings by Glynnis Fawkes are preceded by “Figure,” referring to their position in this book.
Figure 5. Distribution map of Iron Age lyres (after DCPIL). Individual images drawn by Bo Lawergren and numbered according to DCPIL figs. 1, 3–5, 8 (used with permission).
Figure 6. Seated/enthroned lyrist with animals. Unprovenanced North Syrian cylinder seal, ca. 2900–2350. Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem, 2462. Drawn from SAM no. 70.
Figure 7. Musical rite in four registers. Inandık vase, ca. 1650–1550 (Old Hittite). Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi, Ankara. Drawn from photos in Özgüç 1988.
Figure 8. Ishtar (?) playing harp before Ea. Modern impression of Syro-Hittite seal from Konya-Karahöyük, ca. 1750. Drawn from Alp 1972 pl. 11, no. 22.
Figure 9. Cosmopolitan musical ensemble with ‘Asiatic’ lyre. Wall-painting from Tomb 367, Theban Necropolis, reign of Amenhotep II (ca. 1438–1412). Drawn from MgB 2/1:30–31 fig. 8.
Figure 10. Two harem apartments with musical instruments. Relief from the Tomb of Aÿ, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1364–1347. Drawn from Davies 1908 pl. XXIX.
Figure 11. ‘Kinyrist’ celebrating victorious king. Ivory plaque from Megiddo, ca. 1250–1200. Jerusalem, IAA 38.780. Drawn from Mertzenfeld 1954 pl. XXIV–XXV.
Figure 12. Lyre-playing lion king with animal subjects. Ninth-century orthostat relief from Guzana (Tell Halaf). Drawn from Moortgat 1955 pl. 100–101.
Figure 13. Lyrist with animals and tree (‘Orpheus jug’). Philistine strainer-spout jug, Megiddo, ca. 1100. Jerusalem, IAA 13.1921. Drawn from Dothan 1982 fig. 21.1 (pl. 61).
Figure 14. Coin of the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE). Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem, 5651. Drawn from SAM no. 133–134.
Figure 15. King David with animals. Sixth-century floor-mosaic, Gaza (restored). Jerusalem, IAA 1980.3410. Drawn from SAM no. 72.
Figure 16. Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean according to the Tabula Peutingeriana. Used by permission of the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.
Figure 17. Lyrist-archer, White Painted krater from Khrysokhou (near Marion), ca. 850–750 (CG III). Collection of the Archbishopric of Cyprus, Nicosia. Drawn from Karageorghis 1980b.
Figure 18. Model shrine with dancers and lyrist. Unprovenanced (seventh century?), Louvre AO 22.221. Drawn from Ridder 1908 pl. 20.106 and CAAC IV pl. LXXVII:9.
Figure 19. Model shrine with lyrist and spectators. Unprovenanced (eleventh–seventh century), Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, inv. B 220.1935. Drawn from Boardman 1971 pl. XVII.1–V.
Figure 20. Map of Cyprus showing distribution of iconography discussed in text.
Figure 21. Kinyrístria and dancer. Fourteenth-century Egyptian(izing) faience bowl from Cyprus (unprovenanced). Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, Inv. G63. Drawn from autopsy and Karageorghis 1976a fig. 137.
Figure 22. Female lutenist. Egyptian(izing) faience bowl from near Idalion. New York, MMA 74.51.5074. Drawn from Karageorghis et al. 2000:63 no. 99.
Figure 23. Lyre-player seal, Ashdod, ca. 1000. Jerusalem, IAA 91-476. Drawn from Dothan 1971, pl. XLIX.7.
Figure 24. Juxtaposition of ‘western’ and ‘eastern’ lyres. Orthostat relief, Karatepe, ca. 725. Drawn from Akurgal 1962 fig. 142.
Figure 25. Warrior-lyrist. Proto-bichrome kalathos from Kouklia, eleventh century (LCIIIB). Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, Kouklia T.9:7. Drawn from CCSF 1:5, 2:1–3.
Figure 26. Hubbard amphora, Famagusta district, ca. 800. Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, 1938/XI-2/3. Drawn from CCSF 1.8–9, 2.7–9.
Figure 27. Cypriot votive figurines with variety of lyre shapes (scale not uniform). 27a (Cypro-Archaic, unprovenanced) = London, BM 1876/9-9/90, drawn from CAAC IV:I(v)4. 27b (Cypro-Archaic, Lapethos) = London, BM 1900.9-3.17, drawn from CAAC Va:I(xi)i.67. 27c (Cypro-Archaic, unprovenanced) = Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, inv. B192a, drawn from CAAC Va:I(xi)i.71. 27d (Cypro-Archaic, Kourion) = University Museum, Philadelphia no. 54-28-109, drawn from CAAC IV:I(v)3. 27e (Hellenistic, Cythrea), MMA accession no. unknown, drawn from Cesnola 1894, pl. XXXIV no. 282.
Figure 28. Cypro-Phoenician symposium bowl from Idalion, ca. 825. New York, MMA 74.51.5700. Drawn from PBSB Cy3.
Figure 29. ‘Eastern’ lyres in the Cypro-Phoenician symposium bowls, ca. 900–600. Drawn from corresponding photos in PBSB.
Figure 30. ‘Western’ lyres on the Cypro-Phoenician symposium bowls, ca. 750–600. Drawn from photos in PBSB.
Figure 31. Ivory pyxis with lyre ensemble, Nimrud, North Syrian school, ninth–eighth century. Baghdad ND1642. Drawn from Mallowan 1966 fig. 168.
Figure 32. Sixth-century Egyptianizing limestone statue from Golgoi (?). New York, MMA 74.51.2509. Drawn from Aspects fig. 138.
Figure 33. Cypro-Phoenician symposium bowl, before ca. 725. Olympia, Greece. Athens NM 7941. Drawn from PBSB G3.
Figure 34. Statue of female lyre-player with late floral-post lyre, Golgoi, Hellenistic. New York, MMA 74.51.2480. Drawn from Cesnola 1885 pl. cii no. 676.
Figure 35. Myrrha fleeing, putting viewer in position of Kinyras. Roman fresco from Tor Marancio, ca. 150–250 CE, after Hellenistic original. Vatican, Sala delle Nozze Aldobrandine. Drawn from LIMC s.v. Myrrha no. 1.
Figure 36. Próthesis of Achilles, with silenced lyre. Sixth-century Corinthian hydria, Louvre E 643. Drawn from LIMC s.v. Achilleus no. 897.
Figure 37. Lekythos showing dedication of lyre at grave. Berlin ‘Antiquarium’ no. 3262. Drawn from Quasten 1930 pl. 34.
Figure 38. Enthroned/seated harpist, Sacred Tree, and offering-bearers. Cypriot bronze stand from Kourion (?), thirteenth century. London, BM 1920/12–20/1. Drawn from Papasavvas 2001 fig. 42–47.
Figure 39. Enthroned/seated harpist and harpist devotee. Cypriot bronze stand from Kourion (?), thirteenth century. London, BM 1946/10–17/1. Drawn from Papasavvas 2001 fig. 61–67.
Figure 40. The ‘Ingot God’, Enkomi, ca. 1250 (LC III). Inv. F.E. 63/16.15. Drawn from Flourentzos 1996:47.
Figure 41. Procession/dance scene. Modern impression of LBA Cypriot cylinder-seal from Enkomi, ca. 1225–1175 (LC IIIA). Nicosia, Cyprus Museum 1957 inv. no. 36. Drawn from Courtois and Webb 1987 pl. 7 no. 23.
Figure 42. Procession/dance scene with possible stringed instrument. Modern impression of LBA Cypriot cylinder-seal from Enkomi Tomb 2. Stockholm, Medelhavsmuseet Inv. E. 2:67. Drawn from Karageorghis 2003:280–281 no. 320.
Figure 43. Limestone head of Kinyrad king, seventh century. Palaepaphos KA 730. Drawn from Maier 1989:378 fig. 40.1.
Figure 44. Paphian coin with ‘Apollo’ and omphalós, reign of Nikokles, ca. 319. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Drawn from BMC Cyprus pl. XXII.11.
Figure 45. Lyrist and bird-metamorphosis. Modern impression of cylinder seal, Mardin (?), ca. 1800. London, BM 134306. Drawn from Li Castro and Scardina 2011, fig. 11.
Figure 46. The Lyre-Player Group of Seals (subset with Lyrist). Drawn variously from images in Boardman and Buchner 1966; Boardman 1990; Rizzo 2007; SAM. For individual references, see 523n182.
Figure 47. Sumerian Bull-headed lyre with ‘emergent’ bull. Stele-fragment, Lagash, before 2100. Paris, Louvre AO 52. Drawn from MgB 2/2 fig. 45.
Figure 48. David and his musicians. Chludov Psalter, ninth century, Moscow, State Historical Museum, MS D.129, fol. 5v. Drawn from Currie forthcoming pl. 2.