Casey Dué, Achilles Unbound: Multiformity and Tradition in the Homeric Epics
1. “Winged Words”: How We Came to Have Our Iliad
2. Sunt Aliquid Manes: Ancient Quotations of Homer
3. “And Then an Amazon Came”: Homeric Papyri
4. The Lost Verses of the Iliad: Medieval Manuscripts and the Poetics of a Multiform Epic Tradition
Conclusion. “In Appearance Like a God”: Textual Criticism and the Quest for the One True Homer
Plate 1. A fresco from the so-called Palace of Nestor in Pylos suggests that as early as Mycenaean times, poetry in performance has been conceived of as being in flight. Drawing by Valerie Woelfel, after a reconstruction by Piet de Jong.
Plate 2. Red-figure skyphos attributed to Macron (Louvre G146), depicting Agamemnon leading away Briseis (side A). Neither side A nor side B (Plate 3) aligns with the scenes as narrated in our Iliad. Photo by Marie-Lan Nguyen [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons.
Plate 3. Red-figure skyphos attributed to Macron (Louvre G146), depicting the embassy to Achilles (side B). Achilles is veiled and grieving and does not address his comrades. Photo by Jastrow [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons.
Plate 4. Boar’s-tusk helmet from the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Photo by afrank99 [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons.
Plate 5. This miniature fresco, on the south wall of Room 5 in the West House on Thera, might depict an epic tale of homecoming after a successful military expedition. Photo by Oltau, via Wikimedia Commons (public domain).
Plate 6. Mycenaean warriors with oxhide shields and boar’s tusk helmets attack a walled coastal city in this miniature fresco from the north wall of Room 5 in the West House on Thera. Photo by H-stt, via Wikimedia Commons (public domain).
Plate 7a. Detail from the François Vase showing Dionysus carrying the golden amphora as a gift for Thetis at her wedding to Peleus. Photo by Sailko [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons.
Plate 7b-1: Photo by Bibi Saint-Pol, via Wikimedia Commons (public domain).
Plate 7b-2: Photo by Bibi Saint-Pol, via Wikimedia Commons (public domain).
Plate 7b-3: Drawing by Joni Godlove.
Plate 7b. White-ground lekythos, attributed to the Athena Painter (Louvre F366). Achilles crouches in ambush while Polyxena draws water from a fountain. Vase paintings depicting the ambush of Troilus regularly feature his sister Polyxena, as here.
Plate 8. Black-figure amphora signed by Exekias (British Museum B210), depicting Achilles killing the Amazon Penthesileia. As their eyes meet, too late, Achilles falls in love with her. Photo ©The Trustees of the British Museum, used under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.