Porter, Andrew. 2019. Agamemnon, the Pathetic Despot: Reading Characterization in Homer. Hellenic Studies Series 78. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_PorterA.Agamemnon_the_Pathetic_Despot.2019.
2. Characterization in Homer and Agamemnon’s Appeal in Iliad 4
2.1 Traditional Characterization
2.1.1 Character Consistency
Who rides a stout dun-colored horse,
Both legs hanging over the one side
And on the other side a nail-studded walking stick?
2.1.2 Character Traits and History
2.1.3 Characterization through Word and Deed
2.2 Typical and Specific Appeals
2.2.1 Agamemnon’s Appeal to Idomeneus: 4.251–272
2.2.2 Aiantes: 4.273–292
2.2.3 Nestor: 4.293–326
2.2.4 Menestheus and Odysseus: 4.327–364
The dear father of Telemachos mixing with the foremost fighters
of the horse-taming Trojans. You, however, babble uselessly!
ὄψεαι αἴ κ’ ἐθέλῃσθα καὶ αἴ κέν τοι τὰ μεμήλῃ
Τηλεμάχοιο φίλον πατέρα προμάχοισι μιγέντα
Τρώων ἱπποδάμων· σὺ δὲ ταῦτ’ ἀνεμώλια βάζεις.
The reference to Telemachos is a metonymic “tag” for the singer and audience as they navigate the web of tradition that adheres to Odysseus.  In this instance, the metonym may bring to mind Odysseus’ nostos to Ithaca, including both his struggle to return and the consequent action to restore order (told in some form by epic singers before our present version of the Odyssey, as we noted in Chapter 1). After all, when Odysseus left Ithaca, Telemachos was but a child. It is unlikely that this metonym was meant for a child, one who had not yet experienced the stuff of adult life and whose central part in myth only begins with the sorts of events we find described in the Telemachy. Nor are children a central narrative concern for ancient writers (Heath 2001:132 and Golden 2003).
2.2.5 Diomedes and Sthenelos: 4.365–418
why do you cower,  and why do you stare at the embankments of war[’s soldiery]? 
It was not dear to Tydeus thus to cringe,
but far before his dear companions to fight against the enemy,
ὤ μοι Τυδέος υἱὲ δαΐφρονος ἱπποδάμοιο
τί πτώσσεις, τί δ’ ὀπιπεύεις πολέμοιο γεφύρας;
οὐ μὲν Τυδέϊ γ’ ὧδε φίλον πτωσκαζέμεν ἦεν,
ἀλλὰ πολὺ πρὸ φίλων ἑτάρων δηΐοισι μάχεσθαι,
For I am not vexed at Agamemnon shepherd of the people,
who is urging on the well-greaved Achaians to fight.
τέττα, σιωπῇ ἧσο, ἐμῷ δ’ ἐπιπείθεο μύθῳ·
οὐ γὰρ ἐγὼ νεμεσῶ Ἀγαμέμνονι ποιμένι λαῶν
ὀτρύνοντι μάχεσθαι ἐϋκνήμιδας Ἀχαιούς·
It is evidently not in character for Diomedes suddenly to speak like an Odysseus. He is controlled by respect for Agamemnon’s office.  He will, however, store up this insult and later reveal Agamemnon’s inequitable gaff in dire circumstances, during a critical assembly in book 9. The character of Diomedes is housed within the tradition that Homer and his core audience are accessing.
2.3 Impetuous Agamemnon
I am neither chastising you excessively nor giving you orders;
For I know that your heart in your chest
knows gentle thoughts; For you think the same things as I in point of fact.
But come, we will make good these things afterward, if any evil now
has been uttered, but all these things may the gods make of no effect.
διογενὲς Λαερτιάδη πολυμήχαν’ Ὀδυσσεῦ
οὔτέ σε νεικείω περιώσιον οὔτε κελεύω·
οἶδα γὰρ ὥς τοι θυμὸς ἐνὶ στήθεσσι φίλοισιν
ἤπια δήνεα οἶδε· τὰ γὰρ φρονέεις ἅ τ’ ἐγώ περ.
ἀλλ’ ἴθι ταῦτα δ’ ὄπισθεν ἀρεσσόμεθ’ εἴ τι κακὸν νῦν
εἴρηται, τὰ δὲ πάντα θεοὶ μεταμώνια θεῖεν.
Here we observe a softening of the initial blow with the adverb “excessively” (περιώσιον) and the positive listing of Odysseus’ “gentle thoughts” (ἤπια δήνεα). Then follows Agamemnon’s affirmation that Odysseus thinks as he himself does, with a promise to make amends in the future for any present “evil” (κακόν) on his part. Agamemnon ends with a wish that the gods make all things “of no effect” (μεταμώνια), a wish that, as we will see in Chapter 4, Agamemnon is not granted. This error will return as one of many grievances to haunt him.
For if in fact Hector is going to say you are evil and cowardly,
nevertheless the Trojans and Dardanians will not be persuaded
nor the wives of the great-hearted, shield-bearing Trojans,
for whom you cast in the dust [their] husbands in [their] vigor.
ὤ μοι Τυδέος υἱὲ δαΐφρονος, οἷον ἔειπες.
εἴ περ γάρ σ’ Ἕκτωρ γε κακὸν καὶ ἀνάλκιδα φήσει,
ἀλλ’ οὐ πείσονται Τρῶες καὶ Δαρδανίωνες
καὶ Τρώων ἄλοχοι μεγαθύμων ἀσπιστάων,
τάων ἐν κονίῃσι βάλες θαλεροὺς παρακοίτας.