3. Greek Colonization Before Alexander
3.1.1 Herodotus Histories 2.152, 154, excerpts (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
3.1.2 Herodotus Histories 2.178–179 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
3.2 Trade and Tourism
3.2.1 Strabo Geography 17.1.33, excerpts (7 BCE–23 CE; Greek)
3.2.2 Aristotle Athenian Constitution 11.1 (329 BCE; Greek)
3.2.3 Plutarch Solon 2.3–4, excerpt (early 2nd c. CE; Greek)
3.3.1 Nonnus Dionysiaca 13.300–303 (Greek, late 4th–early 5th c. CE)
who slew lions, bore Aristaeus  thanks to Phoebus’ affection
when fair Apollo abducted her to sandy Libya
in his bandit bridal chariot.
3.3.2 Pindar Pythian 9.1–13, 17–28, 51–58 (474 BCE; Greek)
the deep-girdled graces, the Pythian victory
of Telesicrates with his bronze shield. 
A blessed man, he is the crown jewel of horse-driving Cyrene.
5 Once Leto’s son with flowing hair snatched her from Pelion’s hollows
that echo in the wind. He carried off the wild maiden in his golden chariot
and made her mistress of a fertile land filled with sheep
to inhabit the thriving and lovely third root of the earth. 
Aphrodite of the silver feet received her
10 Delian guest from his divine chariot,
laying her nimble hand upon him.
She bestowed on their sweet union loving reverence and bound
the god in marriage to the daughter of Hypseus, who ruled widely.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypseus raised his fair-armed daughter Cyrene.
But she enjoyed neither the back and forth of the loom
nor the pleasures of dining with the women of the house;
20 rather, fighting with bronze javelins and the sword,
she hunted wild beasts, thus providing
great quiet and peace to her father’s
cattle. She spent little time
with the sweet bedfellow sleep
25 falling upon her eyelids towards dawn.
One time, broad-quivered Apollo who works from afar
came upon her wrestling a mighty lion
by herself without weapons.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chiron the centaur to Apollo:
are about to carry her over the sea to the outstanding garden of Zeus.
There, you will make her ruler of a city after you gather the islanders
and make them one people on the hill surrounded by plains.
55 And now Libya, mistress with broad meadows,
will freely welcome your famous bride in her golden house
and will grant her at once an allotment of land to lawfully belong to her
and reward her with a variety of fruits and wild animals.”
3.3.3 Callimachus Hymn to Apollo 55–96 (c. 250 BCE; Greek)
for Phoebus always delights in peopled cities
and he himself weaves their foundations.
At age four, Phoebus established the first foundations
in beautiful Ortygia near the circular pool.
60 Artemis, hunting, repeatedly brought the heads
of Cynthian goats while Apollo knitted together an altar.
He built the precinct from horns and he put the altar together
out of horns and he surrounded it with walls of horn.
Thus, Phoebus learned to raise his first foundations.
65 Phoebus also pointed out to Battus my city  blessed with deep soil
and, as a raven (an auspicious bird to the colonizer), the god
led the people as they entered Libya and swore
that he would grant walls to our kings—and Apollo
always keeps his word. O Apollo, many call you Boedromius
70 and many call you Clarius: your name is called out everywhere.
But I call you Carneius, according to my ancestry. 
O Carneius, Sparta was indeed your first precinct,
Thera was second, and the city of Cyrene third.
From Sparta the sixth generation descendants of Oedipus
75 led you to the planting of the colony of Thera. From Thera,
vigorous Aristoteles  placed you by the land of the Asbytae, 
and built you a very beautiful palace. In the city,
he established a yearly rite, in which many
bulls fall to their haunches for the last time, my lord.
80 Ho, Carneius, to whom many prayers are offered, your altars
are loaded with flowers in spring, as many multicolored blossoms
as the Hours bring forth when the Zephyr breathes dew;
in winter, there is the sweet crocus. Your ever-flowing fire
is eternal and ash does not feed around yesterday’s coals.
85 To be sure, Phoebus rejoiced greatly when Enyo’s 
belted warriors danced with blonde Libyan women,
when the appointed time of the Carneian festival arrived.
Not yet did the Dorians approach the fountain of Cyre;
rather, they dwelled in the thickly wooded glens of Azilis. 
90 The god himself saw them and showed them to his bride
while standing on horn-shaped Myrtussa, where the daughter
of Hypseus killed the lion that plundered Eurypylus’ cattle.
Apollo never saw another dance more divine than that one,
nor did he dispense as many benefactions to a city as he did to Cyrene,
95 as he was mindful of his earlier rape. And the descendants
of Battus themselves have honored no other god more than Phoebus.
3.3.4 Strabo Geography 17.3.21 (7 BCE–23 CE; Greek)
3.3.5 Pausanias Description of Greece 10.15.6–7 (Greek, c. 110–180 CE)
3.3.6 Herodotus Histories 4.150–151, 158–159 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
After several unsuccessful attempts to establish a settlement in Libya, the Therans colonized Aziris.
3.3.7 Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum ix.3: Foundation Decree of Cyrene (4th c. BCE; Greek)
Oath of the Colonists 
3.4.1 Pliny Natural History 5.31–34, excerpts (77–79 CE; Latin)
3.5.1 Theophrastus History of Plants 6.3.1–5, excerpts (350–287 BCE; Greek)
3.5.2 Pliny Natural History 19.38–42 (77–79 CE; Latin)
3.5.3 Hippocratic Corpus, Internal Affections 6.39 (5th–4th c. BCE; Greek)
3.5.4 Pliny Natural History 22.100–101, excerpts (77–79 CE; Latin)
3.5.5 Soranus Gynecology 63, excerpts (98–138 CE; Greek)
3.5.6 Aristophanes Birds 526–538 (414 BCE; Greek)
limed sticks snares,
and various nets for you:
once they catch you, they sell you in heaps
530 and the buyers poke and squeeze you.
And then, if only they did the appropriate thing
and served you roasted!
But no: they grate cheese and add oil,
silphium, and vinegar. They rub
535 in another sauce, sweet and greasy,
and then pour it all heated
onto you as though
you were roadkill.
3.5.7 Athenaeus Sophists at Dinner 2.67, excerpt (early 3rd c. CE; Greek)
the cost to make it delicious: cheese, honey
sesame, olive oil, leek, vinegar, silphium.
The onion itself by itself is worthless and bitter.
3.5.8 Cato On Agriculture 116 (c. 160 BCE; Latin)