Sandridge, Norman B. 2012. Loving Humanity, Learning, and Being Honored: The Foundations of Leadership in Xenophon's Education of Cyrus. Hellenic Studies Series 55. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_SandridgeN.Loving_Humanity_Learning_and_Being_Honored.2012.
Chapter 4. Six Problemswith Loving Humanity
Getting Close but Not Too Close
Cyrus checks his natural impulse to treat Gobryas as a friend by being attentive to his own self-interest and the well-being of his army. Furthermore, Cyrus turns down Gobryas’ offers of abundant wealth—and his daughter—showing not only that he practices philanthrôpia with restraint but that he practices restraint against the temptations of royal sovereignty, grand fortresses, and even women “worthy of erotic love” (cf. ἀξιέραστα, 22.214.171.124).
Being Friendly but Not Permissive
Loving Everyone to the Proper Degree
Even if Cyaxares seems ungrateful, envious, and petty here, his perspective is morally defensible according to one of Cyrus’ own prior judgments. When Cyrus attempts to reconcile Tigranes with his father, the Armenian king, over the execution of Tigranes’ tutor, the king explains that he had killed the tutor out of envy, in the spirit of a man who discovers that his wife has been seduced by an adulterer. Cyrus instructs Tigranes to forgive his father because he did not act out of malice toward him; it was, he says, a “human mistake” (3.1.39–40). Moreover, as we have seen, Cyrus himself uses philanthrôpia (in the form of specialized gift-giving) to prevent his followers from forming intimate attachments with one another that could divide their loyalty to him.
Giving without Losing
Caring without Anxiety