5. Imperialism: Rome
5.1.1 Diodorus Siculus Library of History 20.14 (60–30 BCE; Greek)
Macrobius describes a ritual element to the defeat of Carthage: the use of evocatio by the Romans to remove a patron god from a city about to be conquered.
and city of Carthage is, I pray to and worship you especially, you who
have taken this city and people under your protection and
I seek favor from you, that you desert the Carthaginian
people and city. Leave their temples, their sacred places,
and their city and go away from them.
8.Inspire in this people and city fear, dread,
and forgetfulness and graciously come to Rome,
to me and my people. May our temples, sacred places
and city be more acceptable and esteemed
to you and may you be gracious to me
and to the Roman people and to my soldiers.
If you act thus, so that we know
I vow that I will dedicate temples and games to you.
5.1.3 Appian Punic Wars 133–136, excerpts (c.95–c. 165 AD; Greek)
5.1.4 Josephus Jewish War 2.382–386, excerpts (c. 75 CE; Greek)
5.1.5 Vergil Aeneid 4.622–629 (29–19 BCE; Latin)
with your grudge. Send this as an offering to my
ashes. May there be no fondness, no alliance between the peoples.
625 May some avenger rise from my bones, who will
pursue the Trojan colonists with sword and fire,
whether now, later, or whenever strength offers itself.
I pray that our shores oppose their shores, our waves their waves,
our arms their arms; may generation after generation fight.
5.2 The Roman Ethnographic Tradition
5.2.1 Sallust Jugurthine War 17–19 (41-40 BCE; Latin)
5.2.2 Vergil Georgics 3.339–348 (29 BCE; Latin)
340 their grazing lands, and their settlements of scattered huts? 
Often all day, all night, and indeed for an entire month
the flock goes and pastures far into the desert without
any shelter, so vast is the land. The African herdsman
keeps everything with him: shelter, household gods,
345 weapons, Laconian dog, and Cretan quiver.
He is not unlike the hardy Roman soldier who under
a heavy pack takes to the road and after pitching camp
takes his place in the battle line and awaits the enemy.
5.2.3 Lucan On the Civil War 9.410–430, excerpts (60–65 CE; Latin)
In winds and sky, it is equal to Europe. …
420 … All of Libya’s fertile lands
lie to the west, but even these are not watered
by any springs. They do receive rains from
occasional north winds, which give us clear skies.
The soil is not corrupted by any riches: it yields
425 neither gold nor bronze, but is pure to its depths
and unadulterated. The Marusians had a wealth of
citron wood, but they did not know its value and
were content to live under its leaves and shade.
Into the untouched grove came Roman axes,
430 as we sought banquet tables at the ends of the earth.
5.3.1 Eutropius Abridgement of Roman History 3.1, excerpt (late 4th c. CE; Latin)
5.3.2 Polybius Histories 29.27, excerpts (200–c. 118 BCE; Greek)
5.3.3 Cassius Dio Roman History 53.23 (200–222 CE; Greek)
5.3.4 Strabo Geography 17.1.12 (7 BCE–23 CE; Greek)