Bonifazi, Anna, Annemieke Drummen, and Mark de Kreij. 2016. Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse: Exploring Particle Use across Genres. Hellenic Studies Series 79. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_BonifaziA_DrummenA_deKreijM.Particles_in_Ancient_Greek_Discourse.2016.
I.1 General introduction
1.1 The extent of the project
1.3 The term “particle”
1.4 The discourse approach: key concepts
While in 1. “and” connects states of affairs (going to the movies and going to the pub), in 2. “and” connects the actions of the speaker (hence the metalinguistic value). Those actions consist in asking two questions that appear to have a joint purpose. Ancient Greek particles and particle combinations prototypically encode metalinguistic functions and meanings. Our chapters shed light on how particles signal, for instance, how the discourse is going to proceed, how traditional content is recalled, how accounts are segmented into manageable pieces, and how internal speakers exploit metalanguage. All these considerations illustrate the “doing of saying,” to recall Austin’s famous claim:  particles reflect metalinguistic action by marking, for example, narrative expansions and closings, or the insertion of evaluative or emotional comments.
1.5 A discourse approach to ancient Greek particles
1.6 Guiding questions
- Which linguistic features co-occur? In particular, are other pragmatically relevant elements, such as tense or anaphoric markers, co-present?  What does the whole co-signify?
- What communicative goal lies behind the current stretch of discourse?
- What is the scope of the particle(s)?
- Who is involved in the current piece of communication (speaking ‘I’, addressees, interlocutors, co-present characters)?
- Does the passage in question resonate with a preceding or following excerpt (not necessarily contiguous)? If so, what are the similarities and differences?
- Does the current stretch of discourse have an expected or projected place in some large-scale pattern, such as a conversational sequence, a script, an argumentative scheme, or a generic topos?
- To which macro-genre and to which sub-genre (if any) does the current discourse belong?
- How is this communicative place realized in other works or in other parts of the same work?
- Are there any linguistic patterns that recur in parallel examples? Can patterns and parallel examples illuminate ad hoc philological issues?
- How do the same particles make sense in different genres?
It is through continual discussion and comparison of evidence that we have approached the effort to answer our overriding question: “what is here the discourse function of particle X?”