Monsacré, Hélène. 2018. The Tears of Achilles. Trans. Nicholas J. Snead. Introduction by Richard P. Martin. Hellenic Studies Series 75. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_MonsacreH.The_Tears_of_Achilles.2018.
III.4. The Language of Tears
Comparisons. Images. Vocabulary.
A Biology of Tears
How tears arise
The tremor that characterizes the physical state just before one bursts into tears is similar in nature to the corporeal manifestation of fear.  When the warrior wants to cry or when he succumbs to fear, his eyelids and knees tremble. In both cases, the specific sign for this type of emotion is the trembling of a body part.  Nothing like this happens for women; on the contrary, as we have seen, they cry passively, they dissolve almost peacefully. This inversion is still more precise if we recall how Penelope is consumed by tears and melts like snow in the sun,  while Agamemnon’s grief in the passage cited above is compared to a flood of hail and snow (Iliad 10.6–7). 
The fertility of tears
- θαλερὸν κατὰ δάκρυ χέοντες [Iliad 6.496; Odyssey 4.556; 10.201, 409, 570; 11.5, 466; 12.12; 22.447]
- θαλερὸν δέ οἱ ἔκπεσε δάκρυ [Iliad 2.266; Odyssey 16.16]
- θαλερὸν κατα δάκρυον εἶβεν [Iliad 24.9; Odyssey 11.391]
- θαλερὸν δὲ κατείβετο δάκρυ παρειῶν [Iliad 24.794]
The Sites and Gestures of Grief
The permanent reminder of her bed, the privileged site of tears, demonstrates the perfect bond that unites a woman with her husband;  in the bed in Ithaca, Penelope’s tears are like a substitute for Odysseus.
The gestures of tears