Sigurðsson, Gísli. 2004. The Medieval Icelandic Saga and Oral Tradition: A Discourse on Method. Trans. Nicholas Jones. Milman Parry Collection of Oral Literature 2. Cambridge, MA: Milman Parry Collection of Oral Literature. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_SigurdssonG.The_Medieval_Icelandic_Saga_and_Oral_Tradition.2004.
|ð/Ð||ð||as in with, father; called eth|
|g||g||variants include [x], e.g. in sagt; [γ], e.g. in saga|
|h||h||‘h’ usually produces voiceless fricative variants of following consonants, e.g. ‘hl-’ [l̥]; ‘hr-’ [r̥]; ‘hn-’ [n̥]; ‘hv’ OI [xw], MI [kv]|
|l||l||in MI, ‘ll’ is [dl]|
|ng||ng||as in finger rather than singer|
|r||r||trilled at the tip of the tongue. In MI, ‘rl’ is [dl], ‘rn’ is [dn]|
|s||s||always voiceless as in cease, never voiced as in rose|
|z||merged with ‘s’ in MI. OI pronunciation is unclear, but perhaps [ts] as in German Witz, Zeit|
|þ/Þ||θ||as in think, both; called thorn|
|Old Icelandic character||IPA||closest equivalents||Modern Icelandic character||IPA||closest equivalents||Notes|
|a||a||German Mann||→ a||a/ɑː||German Mann; father|
|e||e||bet||→ e||e/ɛː||bet; yeah||OI ‘e’ is short equivalent of both ‘é’ and ‘æ’|
|é||eː||German Reh||→ é||je||yellow|
|i||i/ɪ(?)||bit||→ i||ɪ/ɪː||bit; bid|
|í||iː||need||→ í||i/iː||neat; need|
|o||o||French pot||→ o||ɔ/ɔː||British dog; British law|
|ó||oː||German Sohn||→ ó||oʊ||note; go|
|u||u/ʊ(?)||put||→ u||ʏ/ʏː||with tongue position as in bid but with light lip-rounding as in put|
|ú||uː||food||→ ú||u/uː||shoot; food|
|y||y||German hütte||→ y||ɪ/ɪː||bit; bid||merged with ‘i’ in MI|
|ý||yː||German fühlen||→ ý||i/iː||neat; need||merged with ‘í’ in MI|
|æ||ɛː||yeah||→ æ||aɪ||write; ride|
|ǫ||ɔ||British dog||→ ö||ø||German götter; böse (British word)|
|ǫ́||ɔː||British law||→ á||aʊ||cow; merged with ‘á’ in MI, and not distinguished from ‘á’ in OI verse or standardized texts|
|ø||ø||German götter; (British work)||→ ö||ø||Generally merged with OI ‘ǫ’ but sometimes with OI ‘e’|
|œ||øː||German böse||→ æ||aɪ||write; ride||merged with ‘æ’ in MI|
|ey||eʏ(?)||prob. as day but with lip-rounding||→ ey||eɪ||day||merged with ‘ei’ in MI|
|au||aʊ||cow||→ au||øʏ||French feuille|
- The OI inflectional ending ‘-r’, found for example in the nominative singular of most strong masculine nouns and in the 2nd and 3rd person singular present tense of strong verbs, becomes syllabic ‘-ur’ in MI, e.g. OI Hallr (man’s name), MI Hallur.
- OI ‘vá-’ becomes MI ‘vo-’, e.g. OI Vápnfirðinga saga, MI Vopnfirðinga saga.
- In words that are typically unstressed, OI voiceless stops in final position become homorganic voiced fricatives in MI, e.g. OI þat, MI það (‘it’); OI ek, MI ég [jeγ] (‘I’).