Bonifazi, Anna, Annemieke Drummen, and Mark de Kreij. 2016. Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse: Exploring Particle Use across Genres. Hellenic Studies Series 79. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_BonifaziA_DrummenA_deKreijM.Particles_in_Ancient_Greek_Discourse.2016.
1.1 The performative context
1.2 Themes and findings
μιᾶς ἀμείνονες φέρειν,
475 ἄχθος τ’ ἐπ’ ἄχθει καὶ στάσιν πολίταις·
τεκόντοιν θ’ ὕμνον ἐργάταιν δυοῖν
ἔριν Μοῦσαι φιλοῦσι κραίνειν.
On the one hand, τε does have one clear syntactic function which operates in virtually all cases in the drama corpus, and that is the connective one. On the other, this single, widespread function does not adequately explain why τε’s distribution over different kinds of discourse in the plays is variable. That is to say, the variation in the distribution is significant enough to require an explanation. Apart from signaling a connection, τε must provide another pragmatic contribution to the discourse. III.2 discusses this contribution, which is connected to shared encyclopedic and cultural knowledge. The chapter presents analyses of eleven particles with this approach, using distribution as input for interpretation.
ναύτας ἐφορμήσαντα χειμῶνος τὸ πλεῖν,
ᾧ φθέγμ’ ἂν οὐκ ἐνηῦρες, ἡνίκ’ ἐν κακῷ
1145 χειμῶνος εἴχετ’, (…)
1150 Τευ. ἐγὼ δέ γ’ ἄνδρ’ ὄπωπα μωρίας πλέων,
ὃς ἐν κακοῖς ὕβριζε τοῖσι τῶν πέλας.
In his reply to Menelaus, Teucer echoes the other man’s linguistic construction (“I have seen a man…”).  The particle combination δέ γε clarifies how the speaker intends this echo to be understood: as a hostile new step in the discourse, in reaction to the previous insult. The two particles occur together several times in pragmatically similar contexts.
Βα.οὐδαμῶς, ἀλλ’ ἀμφ’ Ἀθήνας πᾶς κατέφθαρται στρατός.
Δα. τίς δ’ ἐμῶν ἐκεῖσε παίδων ἐστρατηλάτει, φράσον.
Βα. θούριος Ξέρξης, κενώσας πᾶσαν ἠπείρου πλάκα.
δέ in this environment marks its host turn as the first part of a new question-answer pair within a series of such pairs. That is, the particle combines with the signal conveyed by the conversational structure, in order to indicate how the turn is intended to fit into its surrounding co-text. III.4 analyzes this and similar relations between particle use and conversational phenomena.
557 ὁτιὴ κοθόρνους εἶχες, ἀναγνῶναί σ’ ἔτι;
τί δαί; τὸ πολὺ τάριχος οὐκ εἴρηκά πω.
Πλ. μὰ Δί’ οὐδὲ τὸν τυρόν γε τὸν χλωρόν, τάλαν,
560 ὃν οὗτος αὐτοῖς τοῖς ταλάροις κατήσθιεν.
γε is particularly frequent in contexts like this one. III.5 explains the connection of this particle to certain affective environments. In general, the chapter illuminates how particles can contribute to expressions of calmness or agitation without ever being the only signs of a particular feeling.