Calame, Claude. 2009. Poetic and Performative Memory in Ancient Greece: Heroic Reference and Ritual Gestures in Time and Space. Hellenic Studies Series 18. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_CalameC.Poetic_and_Performative_Memory_in_Ancient_Greece.2009.
V. Ritual and Initiatory Itineraries toward the Afterlife: Time, Space, and Pragmatics in the Gold Lamellae
1. Neo-mystical aspirations
2. The spatial-temporal itinerary of a dead woman at Hipponion
2.1. Narration and enunciation
you will go into the well-built dwelling of Hades: to the right there is a spring,
alongside it stands a glowing cypress;
it is there that the souls of the dead descend and there they refresh themselves.
To this spring you must not draw near.
But farther on, you will find cold water which flows
from the lake of Mnemosyne; above it stand guards.
They will ask you, in certain judgment,
why you explore the shadows of dark Hades.
Say: “I am a son of the Earth and the starry Heavens.
I burn with thirst and my strength fails me; give me quickly
a drink of the cold water which comes from the lake of Mnemosyne.”
And they will question you, as the king of the Underworld wishes.
And you, when you have drunk, you will travel the sacred way
on which the other mystai and bacchoi also advance in glory.
The text carefully incised on the Hipponion lamella is thus expressed in the future. To the extent that the corresponding verbs assume various forms not in the first person, but rather in the second, the text does not show the enunciative auto-referentiality that one often finds in a lyric poem. Which is to say that the discursive subject does not describe the (verbal) action in which he is engaged. So the future forms presented in the Hipponion text have none of the “performative” value (in the strict sense of the term) that they assume in a metrical poem, when the poem becomes a religious act.  In the absence of any allusion to a sung “performance,” as was the case indirectly at the end of Bacchylides Dithyramb 17, the series of actions which makes up the narrative fabric of the Hipponion text is presented as a sequence of injunctions. These are addressed by an anonymous speaker and narrator to an interlocutor (Benveniste would say an “allocuté” or an “allocutaire”) who is equally anonymous; he becomes the grammatical “you” as subject of the actions recommended. One might propose “The Underworld: A User’s Guide,” if asked to give a title to these injunctive texts.
2.2. Enunciative pragmatics: the funerary context
give me water to drink from the spring which flows constantly
there where the cypress is.
“Who are you? Where do you come from?”
“I am a son of the Earth and the starry Heavens.”
In this text from Crete, anticipation of the declaration of identity is caused by the absence of the other instructions which surround the password itself in the Hipponion document: thus it is caused by the disappearance of the scenario which presents the first-person declaration as an address to the guardians of the Underworld. Substituted for it are, first, the priority given to the thirst of the speaking subject, which constitutes the expected state of narrative “Lack” and begins the micro-plot assumed and spoken by the speaker-I; and, second, the insertion of a question in direct discourse on his own identity, which rather than being auto-referential could be assumed by the guardians of Hades: “who are you? where are you?” (tís d’ essí; pô d’ essí; line 3). A similar procedure calling for a declaration of identity can be found in the famous Egyptian pharaonic Book of the Dead. 
2.3. Initiatory itinerary under the aegis of Dionysus
3. Modalities of funerary initiation
3.1. Thourioi: Purity and divine felicity
Eukles and Eubouleus and all of you, immortal gods;
for I declare that I belong to your blessed race.
But the Moira overwhelms me, and other immortal gods
[ . . . ] and lightning from the stars.
From the grievous circle, hard to endure, I have flown
And on my swift feet I have dashed toward the desired crown,
into the lap of the sovereign, of the queen of the Underworld, I have sunk.
“O fortunate one, o blessed one, rather than dead, you shall be a god.”
A kid, I have fallen into milk.
Enunciated at the beginning of the discourse, the central phase of the proposed spatial-temporal itinerary corresponds to the present of the enunciation. Arriving in Hades (érkhomai, line 1) in a state of exceptional purity, the speaker resorts to a feminine form, probably referring to the soul, to present himself to the gods of the Underworld: the queen of the chthonian world, easily identified as Persephone, Eukles (an avatar of Hades), and finally Eubouleus, identified by different parallels sometimes with Dionysus, and sometimes with Pluto.  Invoked in the vocative in the two shorter but similar texts also found in the “Timpone piccolo,” these three deities are combined with “other immortal gods.” Before this divine constellation, the speaker-soul declares himself in a well-marked speech act (eúkhomai, line 3) which refers both to the utterance which he is making and to the extra-discursive. He solemnly declares that he belongs to the same blessed race (ólbion génos, line 3) as the deities invoked. The soul thus seems to have direct access to the privileged domain reserved in Hades for those who can claim divine ancestry.
3.2. Pelinna: Falling into milk and metaphor
Say to Persephone that it is Bakkhios himself who delivered you.
A bull, you have fallen into milk;
immediately in the milk you sprang out:
a ram, you have fallen into milk.
Wine is your privilege, o blessed one,
and below the earth the initiatory rites of the other blessed await you.
In an anonymous address to the lamella’s bearer, the double text from Pelinna contains utterances composed in the third person and in dactylic meter. Immediately related to the past moment of death and to the “becoming” linked to it (in forms of the aorist), the text insists heavily on the present of its enunciation, “now” (nûn, line 1), “on this day” (hámati tôide, line 1). The present moment is linked not just to the possession of wine, but especially to an introduction to Persephone. Brought about by a liberating movement linked to intervention by Bakkhios, whom we can identify with Dionysus, the invitation to speak to Persephone is enunciated in the injunctive infinitive (eipeîn, line 2), just as in Petelia and in Pharsalus. The text of the direct address itself takes up the formula which closes the longer text from Thourioi and repeats it two or three times in rhythmic prose. In this incantatory movement of repetition with variations, the ram is substituted for the kid: “a ram, you have fallen into milk.” This ritual utterance is preceded by “bull, you have sprung into milk”; doubled on one of the two lamellae, its wording evokes not only incantatory procedure, but also a springing forth which is found in other initiatory texts. 
4. From Bacchus to Orpheus: Comparisons and contrasts
4.1. Original sin and Christian expiation
4.2. Iconographic representations of the Underworld
4.3. Orpheus and Dionysus as musicians
4.4. Dionysus, excluding Orpheus
5. Passwords for a collective funerary identity