1. Speech Genres and Rhetorical Analysis
This modern anxiety about ascribing the use of rhetoric to an epic poet did not affect ancient critics, who, as Joseph Farrell reasonably argued, did not necessarily imply a hierarchical relationship between poetry and rhetoric or indeed anything negative when they suggested that a poet could serve as a model for orators.  Farrell may be right to claim that Highet was “tilting against a straw man” since few modern Latinists would argue that Vergil is a mere rhetorician and no poet.
2. Taxonomies of Epic Speeches
Modern scholars have created more detailed taxonomies for the purposes of analyzing repeated patterns and topoi in speeches in ancient Greek and Latin epic: Anton Fingerle for Homeric epic, Gilbert Highet for Vergil’s Aeneid, and William Dominik for the Thebaid of Statius.  The qualitative differences between these three systems are not great. Fingerle and Highet both have sixteen categories of speeches and Dominik has seventeen. Below I list Dominik’s seventeen categories as a starting point because they reflect his careful examination of the applicability of the taxonomies of his predecessors.
More important than the slight differences in taxonomies are the differences in the way the three scholars placed actual speeches into the various categories. Dominik correctly questioned Highet’s classification of the private speeches of Anna to Dido (Aeneid 4.31–53), Aeneas to Dido (Aeneid 4.333–361), and Latinus to Turnus (Aeneid 12.19–45) as ‘political and legalistic,’ since they are not spoken before an assembly.  This criticism highlights the importance of occasion in the analysis of speeches.
3 Taxonomy of Speeches in the Twelfth-Century Latin Historical Epic
4 Demonstrative Speeches and Medieval Latin Epic: Praise and Blame Speeches
bis capti Phryges, et morti praetendere muros?
en qui nostra sibi bello conubia poscunt!
quis deus Italiam, quae uos dementia adegit?
non hic Atridae nec fandi fictor Vlixes:
durum a stirpe genus natos ad flumina primum
deferimus saeuoque gelu duramus et undis;
uenatu inuigilant pueri siluasque fatigant,
flectere ludus equos et spicula tendere cornu.
at patiens operum paruoque adsueta iuuentus
aut rastris terram domat aut quatit oppida bello.
omne aeuum ferro teritur, uersaque iuuencum
terga fatigamus hasta, nec tarda senectus
debilitat uiris animi mutatque uigorem:
canitiem galea premimus, semperque recentis
comportare iuuat praedas et uiuere rapto.
uobis picta croco et fulgenti murice uestis,
desidiae cordi, iuuat indulgere choreis,
et tunicae manicas et habent redimicula mitrae.
o uere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges, ite per alta
Dindyma, ubi adsuetis biforem dat tibia cantum.
tympana uos buxusque uocat Berecyntia Matris
Idaeae; sinite arma uiris et cedite ferro.
This speech is a particularly important source of vocabulary and topoi later speeches of all genres that contain a vituperative element. Some of the most frequently used words and phrases (underlined above) are: Non pudet (588), dementia (601), and desidia cordi (615). Numanus begins with a vituperatio animis by claiming that the Trojans should be ashamed to hide behind walls and suggesting that they must be mad to imagine they, having been twice defeated, could defeat the Rutulians. He then proceeds to praise his own native Italians in all three categories (external circumstances, physical attributes, and character) as a durum genus (603) who pursue the masculine activities of hunting, horsemanship, and farming and retain their uigor into old age. Finally, Numanus returns to his vituperation of the Trojans, calling them Phrygian women and claiming that they prefer music and dancing choreis tibia, tympana to the arms of war.
5. Vaunts and Taunts in the Twelfth-Century Historical Epics
Integer haud poteris nostros evadere nisus
In the Liber Cumanus, the soldiers of Como utter a similar taunt:
Tempus adest vestrum completum, solvite colla
Non sumus ut vos victi, vel de gente Raimundi.
Nos sub Rege poli non cogunt ulla timere.
Venimus a patria summo sub principe Christo,
Cuius ob auxilium Balee superabimus urbem,
Qui servos Sathane gravibus vincere catenis
Et gladiis nostris penitus dabit esse necandos.
Illesumque, canes, comitem scitote Pirenum,
Et vestre vicina fore tempora cladis.
Self-praise is also implicit in a later taunt in which the Pisans contrast their enemies’ love of gold with their own immunity to bribery:
cunctipotens vestrum, qui tam perversa putatis.
carius est etenim vos tali morte resolvi
nobis, quam Balee pretiosa vel optima queque.
Taunts in the Gesta Roberti are equally disparaging and also can display a comic aspect. On seeing the imposter Michel the citizens of Durazzo laugh and say:
crateras mensis plenos deffere Lieo
et de pincernis erat inferioribus unus.
Teutonici ductor, cursum mutare necesse est.
Non sinit externas huc gressum ferre catervas
Adua, que patriam defendit ab hoste sacratam.
I procul hinc tecumque acies averte rapaces!
I procul et nostras non ingrediaris in horas!
Non sine morte tua nostri damnove cruoris
Mediolanensis patrie violabis honorem.
This speech, which approaches the scope of a formal vituperatio, is announced as a taunt by the verba loquendi “voce lacessit.” These same words appear before Turnus’ taunt of the phantom Aeneas in Book Ten of the Aeneid.  The speech here opens with a vituperatio corporis, referring to his unfortunate red hair (rex ruffe, 2086) and a vituperatio gentis, calling Frederick furoris Teutonici ductor (2086–2087). This last insult is emphasizes the foreignness of Frederick who, as a German Emperor asserting his rights in Italy, was viewed by some as an interloper. The word furor was often used to describe Germans in Italian literature of the twelfth century and also raises doubts about Frederick’s claim to be a new Aeneas since it represents the opposite of pietas in Vergilian symbolism.  Next the imperial troops are reviled as foreign (externas) and rapacious (rapaces). The self-laudatory element is limited to the claim that the River Adda has the power to defend the patria sacrata against foreign invaders. 
6. Deliberative Speeches and the Medieval Ars Dictaminis
Dominik analyzed several of the formal deliberative speeches of the Thebaid to show how they reflect the five-part structure described by Quintilian, which combines parts (3) and (4) of the Ciceronian model into one part called the probatio, which includes the propositio. Without going into detail about how rhetoric functions in individual speeches, he summarized their content; Evadne’s appeal to Theseus (12.546–86) fits into the paradigm in the following way:
The deliberative speeches of the medieval Latin epics also reflect this basic plan since they were inspired to a large degree by models in ancient epic, especially those of Vergil. However, those medieval epic speeches which have a readily visible formal structure owe more to the revised model found in the medieval manuals on letter-writing, the artes dictaminis. James Murphy has argued that a five-part model became standard in Italy by 1135, when the anonymous author of the Rationes dictandi published in Bologna refers to the following “Approved Format” for letters:
If anything, this literary offshoot of Roman oratory facilitated the application of traditional rhetoric to the speeches of written poetry, since the boundary between written and oral was blurred by the perception of letters as a way of making an absent person’s voice present. As Martin Camargo writes of the dictatores, “That they apparently felt no incongruity in transferring precepts designed for an oral, forensic context to written texts is probably due to their perception of the letter as a species of oration.” 
Thus it is not surprising to find the influence of these manuals in the composition of epic speeches in twelfth-century Latin epic.
7. The Standard Five-Part Model of the Ars Dictaminis
1. The Salutatio
Rex Romane tuo, salve, dignissime regno!
The envoys of Tortona addresses Frederick in a similar way:
Pretulit et multas voluit regnare per urbes…
Atque salutavit: “Comitum clarissime,” dixit…
Other times, the salutation appears to be intentionally elided as a sign of disrespect or superiority. Frederick rarely feels the need to greet his addressees formally. Even on an occasion when he needs to ask his vassals for help, at the council at Worms, Frederick uses the simple vocative “duces” (1506). The salutatio also may be replaced by a pithy statement. Frederick frequently begins his speeches with a sententia, as in the introduction to his address to Tortona:
Sero rogat victus, quem victor sepe rogavit.
Frederick is the only character in the Gesta Frederici who begins speeches in this way.
2. The Captatio Benivolentiae
Although he claims that there are five ways of securing good will, in fact the author lists only four. Using the first way, the addressor humbly mentions something about his own achievements or his duties or his motives. In the second the praises of the recipient are duly indicated. The third describes the relationship between the addressor and the addressee, for example propinquitas, dilectio, societas, familiaritas, dominium et servitus, paternitas et filiatio, et similia.  The fourth way stresses the future importance to the addressor of the matter at hand. This last kind of captatio benivolentiae can also be used in the conclusion of a letter.
Sit tibi vita, salus, perpes victoria, virtus!
Exultat populus Romanus te veniente
Et prestolatur tibi deservire paratus.
First they wish that his reign have glory, and that he have health, victory, and virtue. Then they express their own happiness at his arrival and stress their willingness to serve.
Laus et honor tibi sint, maneat tua gloria semper!
Hoc gens nostra cupit tibi tota mente fidelis,
Hoc Dominum precibus celestem poscimus omnes.
The most elaborate captatio benivolentiae is addressed by Milan to Frederick, continuing from the speech whose salutation cited above:
Rex Romane tuo, salve, dignissime regno!
Te nostri cives dominum regemque salutant,
Adventu gaudentque tuo servire parati.
Semper Romano regi gens nostra fidelis
Extitit et regni semper dilexit honorem.
Nunc quoque mens eadem; si vis, opibusque virisque
Utere; dives opum multum divesque virorum
Et servire potens est nobile Mediolanum.
Nec fuit urbs regi dominove fidelior unquam,
[Illa] nec melior nec amantior hactenus equi.
This captatio benivolentiae uses all of methods described in the handbooks. After the flattering salutation, they express joy at his arrival, promise fidelity and willingness to serve, and stress the future importance of their petitio to the addressee by offering wealth. This last point is reinforced by their self-praise; the abundance of resources in manpower and wealth will allow them to make good on their promise to help Frederick. Finally they reiterate with a hyperbolic statement of their own past services — no city was ever more faithful and friendly to a lord.
3. The Narratio
Geoffrey of Vinsauf saw this urgency of epistolary appeal, which necessitates a concise narration, as distinct from Ciceronian oratory, which had a timeless quality in its narrative. 
4. The petitio
5. The Conclusio
8. Praise and Blame in Deliberative Speeches
So it is not surprising to see similar goals in the historical epics of twelfth-century Italy which their authors claimed were written explicitly to glorify great people and cities. These overarching themes in the epics can be as important as the persuasive functions of the deliberative speeches in medieval Latin historical epic.
In a combative letters (epistola proemilialis) the goal of the introductory part of the letter is not to seek goodwill but rather to lead the recipient into hatred, jealousy, or contention (eos in odium in invidiam in contentionem). The author continues to list various ways of doing this:
These topoi of blame prescribed here all fall under the laus animi described in the Ad Herennium. This emphasis of character over physical and external traits reflects the ethical bias of medieval readers of epic. 
9. Diplomatic Speeches
Sit tibi vita, salus, perpes victoria, virtus!
Exultat populus Romanus te veniente
Et prestolatur tibi deservire paratus.
Sed petit, ut veterem serves, dux inclite, morem,
Scilicet ut iures mox intraturus in urbem
Te servaturum populi decus, urbis honorem,
Iura senatorum, nam sic vetus exigit ordo.
Munera preterea Romane debita plebi,
que solet adveniens huc primum rex dare noster,
Postulat, ut tribuas, sicque ingrediaris in urbem
Letus, ut accipias populi gaudentis honorem
Servitiumque simul maius quam sumpseris umquam.
The salutatio contains the respectful epithet venerande and a wish for glory, life, health, perpetual victory, and virtue in his realm. The following captatio benivolentiae (618–619) expresses the joy that Frederick’s arrival brings to the Romans and a promise of willingness to serve. The narratio is so brief as to be almost implied by the petitio (620–625). In asking Frederick to pledge that he will respect the honor and the privileges of the Roman Senate, they simply refer to the veterem morem as a narratio to support their request. Finally, the conclusio contains the promise of future benefit recommended by the Artes dictaminis, namely that they will offer honor to Frederick if he grants their request.
10. The Cohortatio
Often one argument will imply another; for example, the divine support of the iustum argument and the references to past glory of the honestum argument both imply that the victory will be possibile.
in manibus Mars ipse uiris. nunc coniugis esto
quisque suae tectique memor, nunc magna referto
facta, patrum laudes. ultro occurramus ad undam
dum trepidi egressisque labant uestigia prima.
audentis Fortuna iuuat.
It reads like a list of the most common themes of the genre:
per ducis Euandri nomen deuictaque bella
spemque meam, patriae quae nunc subit aemula laudi,
fidite ne pedibus. ferro rumpenda per hostis
est uia. qua globus ille uirum densissimus urget,
hac uos et Pallanta ducem patria alta reposcit.
numina nulla premunt, mortali urgemur ab hoste
mortales; totidem nobis animaeque manusque.
ecce maris magna claudit nos obice pontus,
deest iam terra fugae: pelagus Troiamne petamus?
This is a typical speech given in the middle of a battle to prevent flight, as the opening words (quo fugitis, 369) indicate. Pallas continues by referring to their past great deeds (fortia facta, 369) and makes an appeal to their ancestry and to patriotism (patria, 369 and again in 374). After telling them to make a path with their swords through fighting instead of attempting to find a path with their feet through flight, he provides a variant of the divine favor argument by telling them that mortals and not the gods oppose them (375). This is followed by a denial of a possible suggestion that enemy forces are superior (totidem…, 376) and a final necessarium argument pointing out that flight is impossible since the sea is at their backs. 
11. Cohortationes in the Twelfth-Century Latin Historical Epic of Italy
Hic dabitur tociens alias certamine victis.
Nam fortuna favet, gladios Deus ipse ministrat.
En fugiunt hostes magna iam parte repulsi!
Skipping the salutation, they come straight to the point, telling the infantry to stop and asking them why they flee. The familiar topoi are present: divine favor is described in a form similar to Turnus’ famous audentis fortuna iuvat. The first two words of the speech, state viri, are borrowed from the opening of a speech uttered by Volcens in Book Nine of the Aeneid (9.376), when he notices Nisus and Euryalus leaving the Latin camp. The next three words are very similar to those uttered in Book Eight of the Thebaid (8.654 quo terga datis) by Tydeus in a taunt when he invites the Thebans to avenge their fifty comrades whom he had slain. The short speech ends with a possibile argument suggesting that the battle is for the most part already won.
Facta sonant mundo, memores virtutis avite
Et decoris, vestras, precor, hic ostendite vires,
Et cum res poscit, votis exposcite pugnam.
Ecce ducis sevi concludimur undique telis,
Nec valet hinc nostrum nisi vi discedere quisquam.
Ergo, viri fortes, animos atque arma parate
Et gladiis reserate viam vestreque saluti
Consulite et bello patrios defendite fines!
Nec dubitet quisquam, dabitur victoria vobis.
Nam neque pro spoliis nec quod regnare velitis,
Set pro iusticia, pro rebus iure tuendis
Ecclesie, matris vestre, certamen initis.
Sit procul ergo metus, nullum mors terreat atra.
Erigat insignes spes et fiducia mentes.
Vos Deus et melior, michi credite, causa fovebit.
Quod si forte aliquis bello morietur in isto,
Vivet in eternum celesti sede locatus.”
The opening word, nunc, evokes the possibile topos of “the time is now.” Turnus uses the same word to begin the final part of his cohortationes to the Rutulians (Aeneid 9.156) and at the beginning of successive phrases in his other cohortatio (Aeneid 10.281–282, see above; cf. Tydeus’s speech, Thebaid 3.360). In the next line Oberto makes a reference to past deeds (“clarissima toto / Facta sonant mundo,” Gesta Frederici 3271–3272), which constitutes a kind of captatio benivolentiae as well as an implicit possibile argument. Oberto then implores them to remember the virtus of their ancestors (cf. Aeneid 10.752). The following line (3273) contains more vocabulary typical of honestum arguments, decor and vires. Next, Oberto is given words borrowed from a cohortatio uttered by Lucan’s Pompey: votis deposcite pugnam (Bell. civ. 2.533), which in turn call to mind Turnus’ words from the speech analyzed above (quod uotis optastis adest, Aeneid 10.279). Next Oberto uses a necessarium argument when he explains that they are surrounded and can only fight their way out with swords (3275–3278), using vocabulary from the Thebaid (7.483: reserare viam) to express the same argument that Pallas made in his cohortatio. This is followed by a due reference to the fatherland (patrios fines, 3281) and a confident possibile expression (dabitur victoria vobis). A iustum argument is communicated unambiguously with the words iusticia and iure (3282). References to the church are followed by commands not to fear death and a final iustum argument of divine favor (Deus et melior…casa fovebit). Oberto finishes with the medieval equivalent of the eternal fame and glorious death promised to Roman soldiers by guaranteeing a heavenly reward to any who die in battle. This final element is somewhat out of place in the civic warfare of the twelfth-century Italian communes, but was extremely common in crusade literature.
12. Pre-Battle Sermons
13. Vituperative Cohortationes
“quos alios muros, quaeue ultra moenia habetis?
unus homo et uestris, o ciues, undique saeptus
aggeribus tantas strages impune per urbem
ediderit? iuuenum primos tot miserit Orco?
non infelicis patriae ueterumque deorum
et magni Aeneae, segnes, miseretque pudetque?”
He opens by asking where they flee and expressing “no place for flight” topos. Just as Agamemnon complained that his whole army is no match for Hector alone, Mnestheus expresses the unus homo topos to express his amazement that one man, Turnus, could kill so many while surrounded by hostile Trojans. The vituperative element is signaled by the words segnes, non…miseretque pudetque?, which appeal to the Trojans’ sense of shame and duty to fatherland, the gods, and their leader Aeneas.
Tyrrheni, quae tanta animis ignauia uenit?
femina palantis agit atque haec agmina uertit!
quo ferrum quidue haec gerimus tela inrita dextris?
at non in Venerem segnes nocturnaque bella,
aut ubi curua choros indixit tibia Bacchi.
exspectate dapes et plenae pocula mensae
(hic amor, hoc studium) dum sacra secundus haruspex
nuntiet ac lucos uocet hostia pinguis in altos!
The opening sentence contains typical vituperative words metus, inertes, and ignavia. In terms similar to those used by Agamemnon to describe Mnestheus and Odysseus, the Etruscans are accused of preferring Bacchic feasts and choruses to battle
obiectare animam? numerone an uiribus aequi
non sumus? en, omnes et Troes et Arcades hi sunt,
fatalisque manus, infensa Etruria Turno:
uix hostem, alterni si congrediamur, habemus.
ille quidem ad superos, quorum se deuouet aris,
succedet fama uiuusque per ora feretur;
nos patria amissa dominis parere superbis
cogemur, qui nunc lenti consedimus aruis.
Again the speech genre is signaled by the opening words, non pudet? In a variation on the unus homo theme, Juturna expresses embarrassment that a huge army should stake all on one life in a duel between Turnus and Aeneas. Her speech also contains topoi typical of all cohortationes, such as comments on the superior size of the army in comparison with that of the enemy, references to the patria, and a necessarium argument referring to the terrible consequences of defeat, in this case the compulsion to obey proud masters.
14. Vituperative Cohortationes in Twelfth-Century Epic
Condicione vigens, non vos permittat habere
Cor muliebre, viri. Quae vos ignavia semper
Cogit inire fugam? Memores estote priorum,
Quorum strenuitas totum sibi subdidit orbem.
Hector Achilleis fortissimus occidit armis.
Troia Michaenei ruit ignibus usta furoris.
Philippi quantus fuerit vigor, India novit;
Huius Alexander proles fortissima nonne
Fortia multorum subiecit regna Pelasgis?
Partibus occiduis Graecorum fama timori
Omnibus et mundi regionibus esse solebat.
Quae gens audito Graecorum nomine stare
Audebat campo? Vix oppida, castra, vel urbes
Reddebant tutos ab eorum viribus hostes.
State, precor, validi, memores virtutis avitae,
Degeneresque pedum non vos fiducia reddat.
Hosti adimit vires, qui stare viriliter audet.
Procurate sequi vestigia prima parentum,
Iam fuga displiceat; totus vos sentiat orbis
fortes esse viros. Non est ad bella timendus
Francorum populus, numeroque et viribus impar.
The speech is constructed on the basis of the following ring structure:
The opening sentence recalls the famous taunt of Numanus in which he says the Trojan warriors are like women (Aeneid 9.598–620). Numanus communicates this idea by using the feminine form of the noun in place of the masculine form (Aeneid 9.617):
William of Apulia uses sound patterns in the opening sentence to express the same idea:
Condicione vigens, non vos permittat habere
Cor muliebre, viri. Quae vos ignavia semper
Cogit inire fugam?
Alliteration on v in the first sentence and anaphora on co- in three consecutive lines serve to emphasize virile and cor, and the antithesis of cor muliebre and viri.
The speech ends with a comparison of the strength of the two armies taken from Juturna’s speech (numeroque et viribus impar, Aeneid 12.230):
Vociferans: “Pudeat vallo fossaque teneri
Effrenem populum, qui bella ciere solebat
Et paulo ante sibi regni poscebat honorem!
Quo vigor ille prior, quo tanta superbia cessit?
Nunc date vos equo, si qua est audacia, campo,
Nunc conferte manum, si qua est fiducia, bello!”
The vituperative pudeat opens this speech, but this time it is directed at the enemy. The final anaphora on nunc is also typical of the genre. Another term associated with the genre is vulgus iners. These words are used by Lucan (Bell. civ. 5.365) and Statius (Theb. 5.120) to describe the behavior of troops immediately before cohortationes. They also occur immediately before this speech in the Gesta Frederici (2353). The occasion resembles that of Numanus’ diatribe against the Trojans who refused to leave their fortifications to meet the enemy on the field (Aeneid 9.598–620).
16. Persuasions in the Gesta Frederici
Aut ubi militiam teneris discetis ab annis?
Insignes facient iuvenes muliebria segnes
Otia, venturas consumet inertia vires!
Pacis in hac feda requie torpebitis et nil
Laudari dignum vestro facietis in evo.
Vos patribus geniti, quorum preclara per orbem
Facta sonant, per quos sic gloria Mediolani
Crevit, ut in cunctis fieret celeberrima terris!
Quin igitur moveant animos exempla parentum,
Excutiant mentes maiorum facta iacentes,
Quos tulit in celum virtus et gloria belli.
Degener est, qui facta sequi detractat avorum!
Degener est, patrium quicumque relinquit honorem!
This speech is far more vituperative than anything uttered by Vergil’s Allecto. It opens with the non pudet? theme using the thematic word virtus. Like Numanus in the Aeneid and Exaugustus in the Gesta Roberti, Allecto accuses the young men of womanly sloth (muliebria otia 2644–2645) and calls them segnes. More traditional vituperative vocabulary follows: Inertia is draining their vires, they are afflicted by torpor (2646).
17. Persuasions in the Liber Maiorichinus
te nuper facto fusi docuere cruores.
Sanus enim non est cui figunt spicula guttur
Ergo tui compos citius fac deditionem
Et te nobiscum pariter de funere serva.
The vituperative element dominates.
nos animae uiles, inhumata infletaque turba,
Turnus’ response is swift and violent, consistent with his character. Attacking Drances for his cowardice, he praises himself by asserting his own bravery though past deeds and willingness to fight alone, and some topoi of the cohortatio—we are strong, we have allies, they are twice beaten.
Murmurat, et patrias exoptat turpiter horas,
Inque duces stultas temptans agitare querelas,
Hostibus ommissis, pariter remeare minatur.
This introduction leaves no doubt as to the character of the protesters. They are terrified of the sea, they complain in a base manner (turpiter 378), and their arguments are foolish (stultas).
Vertere, qui curvis incumbere semper aratris,
Cunctaque consumunt vertendo tempora glebas.
Et modo, cum nequeant sua semina tradere sulcis
Aut conculcato pedibus procumbere musto,
Nocte dieque moras istas casusque queruntur,
Inque domos migrare suas fortasse minantur.
Vile genus hominum, quorum miserabilis etas
Presenti populo nullam gerit utilitatem.
Semper agant semperque gemant, semperque susurrent,
Quos mores retinere suos infamia non est.
Nos bonitas clarumque decus seiungat ab illis.
More traditional praise and blame vocabulary follows: honor (392), piget (394), infamia (404), bonitas (405), decus (405), and totus conspicit orbis (411).
cooped close within a rampart’s craven siege,
O Phrygians twice-vanquished? Is a wall
your sole defence from death? Are such the men
who ask our maids in marriage? Say what god,
what doting madness, rather, drove ye here
to Italy? This way ye will not find
the sons of Atreus nor the trickster tongue
of voluble Ulysses. Sturdy stock
are we; our softest new-born babes we dip
in chilling rivers, till they bear right well
the current’s bitter cold. Our slender lads
hunt night and day and rove the woods at large,
or for their merriment break stubborn steeds,
or bend the horn-tipped bow. Our manly prime
in willing labor lives, and is inured
to poverty and scantness; we subdue
our lands with rake and mattock, or in war
bid strong-walled cities tremble. Our whole life
is spent in use of iron; and we goad
the flanks of bullocks with a javelin’s end.
Nor doth old age, arriving late, impair
our brawny vigor, nor corrupt the soul
to frail decay. But over silvered brows
we bind the helmet. Our unfailing joy
is rapine, and to pile the plunder high.
But ye! your gowns-are saffron needlework
or Tyrian purple; ye love shameful ease,
or dancing revelry. Your tunics fiow
long-sleeved, and ye have soft caps ribbon-bound.
Aye, Phrygian girls are ye, not Phrygian men!
Hence to your hill of Dindymus! Go hear
the twy-mouthed piping ye have loved so long.
The timbrel, hark! the Berecynthian flute
calls you away, and Ida’s goddess calls.
Leave arms to men, true men! and quit the sword!
Latin quotations of the Aeneid are from Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil, ed. J. B. Greenough. (Boston, 1900). English translations are from Theodore C. Williams, The Aeneid of Virgil (Boston, 1908).
Latin quotations of the Gesta Frederici are from Schmale-Ott 1965. English translations are my own, often influenced by the freer version of Carson 1994.
Latin quotation of the Liber Maiorichinus are from Callisse 1904. English translations are my own.
Latin quotations of the Liber Cumanus are from Muratori 1724. English translations are my own.
We are neither defeated, like you, nor of the clan of Raymond!
Make us fear, (who are) under the King of Heaven.
We have come from the homeland under the highest prince, Christ,
On account of whose help we shall overcome the city of Balee.
He will grant that we conquer the servants of Satan with heavy chains
And he will give them to our swords to be killed.
Know, dogs, that the Count of the Pyrenees is uninjured,
And the time of your slaughter is near.
Who hold such perverse beliefs, and your gold!
In fact, your being undone by such a death is dearer
To us than all of the precious and best possessions of Balee.
Used to carry bowls full of wine to tables
And was the one of the lowest waiters!
Latin quotations of the Gesta Roberti are from Mathieu 1961. English translations are my own.
You must change your course, Ruler of Teutonic fury!
The Adda does not allow foreign troops to tread here,
But defends our sacred nation from the enemy.
Go far from here and withdraw your rapacious army along with yourself!
Go far away and do not set foot on our shores!
Not without your own death or the loss of our blood
Will you violate the honor of the Milanese homeland!
“uidimus et Martem Libyes cursumque furoris Teutonici.” Benson (1985) cites Boncompagno of Signa and other Italian authors on the identification of Germans with tyranny and furor.
Roman king, most worthy of your kingship, greetings!
Has established in great honor wishing that you rule over many cities…
And greeted him, said “Most distinguished of counts…”
He, whom the victor often asked, asks late after he is defeated.
May you have life, health, lating victory, and strength!
The Roman people rejoices at your arrival
And stands ready, prepared to serve you!
Praise, and honor! My your glory endure forever!
Our faithful people wishes this for you sincerely.
We all ask the Heavenly Lord for this in our prayers.”
Roman king, most worthy of your kingdom, greetings!
Our citizens salute you as lord and king,
And they rejoice in your arrival and are prepared to serve you.
Our people have always been faithful to the Roman king
And have always esteemed the honor of the kingdom
Now too our intention is the same; if you please, use our
Wealth and men; noble Milan has abundant wealth and men
And is capable of serving.
No city has ever been more faithful to king or lord,
Nor has any been better or more devoted to justice to this day.
May you have life, health, lasting victory, and strength!
The Roman people rejoices at your arrival
And stands ready, prepared to serve you!
But we ask that you preserve the ancient custom, O famous leader,
Namely, that as soon as you enter the city
You swear that you will preserve the glory of the people, the honor of the city,
And the rights of the senators, for the ancient order requires this
It also demands the gifts owed to the Roman people
Which our king customarily gives us upon first arriving here.
In this way you may enter the city happilly
And may receive the honor of the rejoicing people
And greater devotion than you have ever received.
ye now may shatter them. The might of Mars
is in a true man’s blow. Remember well
each man his home and wife! Now call to mind
the glory and great deeds of all your sires!
Charge to yon river-bank, while yet they take
with weak and fearful steps their shoreward way!
Fortune will help the brave.
O, by our lord Evander’s happy wars,
the proud hopes I had to make my name
a rival glory,—think not ye can fly!
Your swords alone can carve ye the safe way
straight through your foes. Where yonder warrior-throng
is fiercest, thickest, there and only there
your Country’s honor calls for men like you,
and for your captain Pallas. Nay, no gods
against us fight; we are but mortal men
pressed by a mortal foe. Not more than ours
the number of their lives or swords. Behold,
the barrier of yonder spreading sea
emprisons us, and for a craven flight
yon lands are all too small. Ha! Shall we steer
across the sea to Troy?
Here to us, who have been defeated in battle so many other times.
For fortune favors us, and God himself directs our swords
Behold, most of the enemy are already fleeing,
resound throughout the entire world, mindful of the valor and the decorum of your grandfathers
show, I pray, your strength here.
And when the situation demands it, demand a battle in your prayers.
Behold, we are hemmed in on all sides by the weapons of the savage leader
Nor is any one of us able to leave from here except by force.
Therefore, strong men, prepare your spirits and your arms
And clear a path with swords, provide for your salvation
And defend the borders of your country from war!
Nor should anyone doubt, victory will be given to us.
For you are entering this battle neither for plunder, nor because you wish to rule,
But for justice, for rightfully defending the Church, your mother.
So away with fear, let black death terrify no one.
Let hope and trust lift your distinguished minds
Believe me, God and the better cause favor you.
But if by chance anyone should die in the war,
He shall live in heaven forever.”
What open way is yonder or what wall?
Beyond these ramparts lost what stronger lie?
Shall one lone man here in your walls confined,
make havoc unavenged and feed the grave
with your best warriors? O cowards vile!
For your sad country and her ancient gods
and for renowned Aeneas, can ye feel
no pity and no shame?”
Tuscan cowards, dead to noble rage,
have seized ye? or what laggard sloth and vile
unmans your hearts, that now a woman’s arm
pursues ye and this scattered host confounds?
Why dressed in steel, or to what purpose wear
your futile swords? Not slackly do ye join
the ranks of Venus in a midnight war;
or when fantastic pipes of Bacchus call
your dancing feet, right venturesome ye fly
to banquets and the flowing wine–what zeal,
what ardor then! Or if your flattering priest
begins the revel, and to lofty groves
fat flesh of victims bids ye haste away!
one life for many heroes? Are we not
their match in might and numbers? O, behold
those Trojan sons of Heaven making league
with exiled Arcady; see Tuscan hordes
storming at Turnus. Yet we scarce could find
one foe apiece, forsooth, if we should dare
fight them with half our warriors. Of a truth
your champion brave shall to those gods ascend
before whose altars his great heart he vows;
and lips of men while yet on earth he stays
will spread his glory far. Ourselves, instead,
must crouch to haughty masters, and resign
this fatherland upon whose fruitful fields
we dwell at ease.
Which flourishes in your manly condition should not allow you
To have womanly hearts. What cowardice always forces you
To take flight? remember your ancestors,
Whose vigor subdued the entire world.
Hector was slain by the very strong arms of Achilles.
Troy fell, burnt by the fires of Mycenean fury.
India learned how great was the energy of Philip;
Did not his very strong son Alexander
Subject many strong kingdoms of to the Pelasgians?
The reputation of the Greeks used to give terror
To all of the Western parts and all of the regions of the world.
What people, having heard the name of the Greeks,
Dared to stand in the field? Scarcely towns, camps, or cities
Kept their enemies safe from their forces.
Stand firm, I pray, mindful of the valor of your ancestors.
Do not let trust placed in your feet not render you degenerate.
He who dares to stand bravely takes away force from the enemy.
Take care to follow the in the steps of your fathers.
Now let flight be displeasing; the entire world perceives
That you are strong men. The Frankish people are not to be feared,
Unequal to you both in number and in force.
And shouted, “This unbridled people should be ashamed
To be held in by a wall and a trench, who was accustomed to rush to war
And a bit earlier was demanding for itself royal honor!
Where is that former energy, where has such great pride gone?
Now bring yourselves to the level field, if you have any courage,
Now bring your hand, if you have any confidence, to war!”
Where will you use the military discipline which you have been learning since you were children?
Womanly leisure will make distinguished youths lazy,
inactivity will consume your future strength!
You will become numb in this foul rest of peace,
And you will do nothing worthy of praise in your lifetimes.
You, who are born of fathers whose famous deeds resound
Throughout the world, through whom the glory of Milan
Has so grown that it became most famous in all lands!
Indeed, the example of your parents should move your spirits,
The deeds of your ancestors, should knock your minds out of this depondence
Forlor and the glory of war brought them to Heaven
Degenerate is he who refuses to follow the deeds of his ancestors!
Degenerate any man who abandons the honor of his fathers!
in no way the oath you recently swore.
For a person whose throat arrows pierce is not healthy
Therefore have self-control and make your surrender,
And save yourself from death along with us.
may win a princess, our cheap, common lives–
we the mere mob, unwept, unsepulchred–
must be spilled forth in battle!
Muttered and disgracefully yearned for their home shores
trying to vex their leaders with foolish complaints
forgetting about the enemy, they threatened to return home.
the soil, always bent over curved plows,
the spend all of their time turning clods of earth.
And now, when they are not able to put their seeds in furrows
Or to press down their trampled vintage with their feet
Night and day they complain about this delay and their misfortune.
And perhaps threaten to return to their homes.
Mean tribe of men, whose miserable generation
Offers no utilty to people now.
Always they plead, always they groan, always they murmer;
And to them it is not a disgrace to keep their habits.
Goodness and renowned honor distinguish us from them.
Cf. Numanus’ inclusion of plows among the hard steel implements to which the Italians are accustomed. Clearly farming is considered a symbol of, and not an impediment to, masculine fortitude in the Aeneid.