2. Geographers and Ethnographers on Africa
2.1 The Edges of the Earth
2.1.1 Hesiod Theogony 337–345 (c. 700 BCE; Greek)
Nile, Alpheios, deep swirling Eridanos,
Strymon, Maeander, beautifully flowing Ister,
340 Phasis, Rhesus, silver-streamed Achelous,
Nessos, Rhodios, Haliakmon, Heptaporos,
Granicus, Aisepos, divine Simois,
Peneus, Hermos, well-flowing Caicus,
Sangarius, great Ladon, Parthenios,
345 Euenos, Ardeskos, and divine Scamander.
2.1.2 Homer Iliad 18.481–489, 607–608 (8th c. BCE; Greek)
sculpted many intricate designs with his crafty mind.
On it he wrought the earth,the sky, the sea,
the tireless sun, and the full moon.
485 On it he made all the constellations that adorn
the sky: the Pleides, the Hyades, mighty Orion,
and the Great Bear, which they also call the Wagon,
and which, as it rotates, watches Orion and
has no part in the baths of Okeanos.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
607 On it he made the great strength of the river Okeanos
the outermost rim of the solidly made shield.
2.1.3 Herodotus Histories 4.36, excerpt (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.2 Climate and Characteristics
2.2.1 Hippocratic Corpus, Airs, Waters, Places 1 (c. 400 BCE; Greek)
2.2.2 Herodotus Histories 2.10, 12, excerpts (c.425 BCE; Greek)
2.2.3 Herodotus Histories 2.19–25 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.2.4 Manilius Astronomica 4.723–726 (1st c. CE; Latin)
India had produced less burned inhabitants; the Egyptian land,
725 swimming in the Nile, stains bodies more lightly as its fields
are inundated: nearer and moderate, it produces a medium tone.
2.3.1 Periplus of the Erythraean Sea 1–18, excerpts (1st c. CE; Greek)
2.3.2 Herodotus Histories 2.28–29 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.4 Ethnography: Egypt
2.4.1 Herodotus Histories 2.35–36 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.4.2 Strabo Geography 17.1.3 (7 BCE–23 CE; Greek)
2.5 Ethnography: Libya
2.5.1 Diodorus Siculus Library of History 3.49.1–3 (60–30 BCE; Greek)
2.5.2 Herodotus Histories 4.193 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.5.3 Diodorus Siculus Library of History 3.52–53, excerpts (60–30 BCE; Greek)
2.6 Ethnography: The Garamantes
2.6.1 Herodotus Histories 4.174, 183 (c. 425 BCE; Greek)
2.6.2 Strabo Geography 17.3.19 (c. 20 CE; Greek)
2.6.3 Pliny the Elder Natural History 5.5.35–36, 38 (77–79 CE; Latin)
2.6.4 Tacitus Annals 4.23 (c. 117 CE; Latin)
2.7 Ethnography: Meroe
2.7.1 Diodorus Siculus Library of History 3.6–7, excerpts (60–30 BCE; Greek)