Literary History in the Parian Marble

  Rotstein, Andrea. 2016. Literary History in the Parian Marble. Hellenic Studies Series 68. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_RotsteinA.Literary_History_in_the_Parian_Marble.2016.


Chapter 2. Text and Translation

1. Introduction

For more than a century, Jacoby’s has been the authoritative text of the Parian Marble, first through his 1904 Habilitation thesis, later through the collection of historical fragments (FGrH 239), hereafter referred to as Jacoby’s edition. His work was timely, indeed. By 1904, section B of the inscription, just discovered (1897), had already been edited by Krispi and commented upon by Wilhelm, and two outstanding scholars, Munro and Hiller von Gärtringen, had performed autopsies of both the Ashmolean and the Parian fragments. [1] Although Jacoby did not see the inscriptions but worked with photographs, he was in a position to examine the entire tradition with the tools and perspectives of philology and epigraphy. He established the value of the main witnesses for the constitution of the text by detailed philological analysis. [2] Furthermore, Jacoby, in addition to his own experience of working on ancient Greek chronography, [3] counted on Wilamowitz’s supervision and on the insights of Hiller von Gärtringen, Munro, and other scholars through correspondence and personal communication. [4] Yet his edition, as with most scholarly work, cannot be definitive—although not because new readings have emerged from autopsy. The damage to the Ashmolean section is so extensive that nothing new can be gained from it (although innovative digitization techniques may bring some unexpected surprises), whereas the Parian section is in relatively good shape, except for major lacunae at the center of the last twelve lines. The problem with Jacoby’s edition is that it gives too much, especially for the lost part of the inscription.

Indeed, the situation of the first forty-five lines (twenty-nine entries) of the Parian Marble is often desperate. For its constitution we depend entirely on Selden. [5] His majuscule and minuscule transcriptions, published at the beginning of the seventeenth century, do not conform to current standards of epigraphical notation and are not equivalent to diplomatic and edited transcriptions of texts. A crucial difference lies in the use of dots for signaling the presence of lacunae, rather than the probable number of missing letters based on traces seen on the surface. [6] The unreliable nature of Selden’s dots has been made clear by the control of the Ashmolean section. [7] Sometimes the number of dots exceeds the number of letters missing. [8] Occasionally Selden has dots for lacunae that cannot be seen on the stone. [9] In most cases, it seems that the number of Selden’s dots is significantly smaller than the size of the lacunae (e.g. A41), or lacunae are omitted where traces can be seen, especially at the end of lines (e.g. A45). [10] Indeed, Jacoby’s detailed study of line-length indicates that even if the average line of A was between 90 and 110 letters long [11] (in B, between 110 and 130), in many cases a quarter of the line is missing, if not more. Often Selden simply made mistakes, as Jacoby’s detailed comparison of his transcription against Munro’s autopsy of the Ashmolean fragment suggests. [12] To the problems in the editio princeps one should add a difficulty inherent in the inscription itself—namely, the irregularity in the lines’ length, due to a marked contrast in the width of letters. [13]

I have used the Leiden system, which sometimes differs from Jacoby’s sigla:











[αβγ] restoration of missing letters
⟨αβγ⟩ addition and substitution
{αβγ} suppression of letters seen on the stone (instead of Jacoby’s ⟦αβγ⟧)
[- – – ] lacuna of unknown extent, instead of Jacoby’s asterisk (I use it also for places, especially in A, where Jacoby gives dots, even though the extent of missing characters is unknown)
[- – – ca. 20 – – – ] lacuna with estimate number of missing letters
⟨⟨abc⟩⟩ erasures (which Jacoby mentions only in his apparatus)
α̣β̣γ̣ in the lost section of A, dots mark departures from Selden’s editio princeps; [20] from A35 on they indicate uncertain letters
ΑΒΓ letters of uncertain interpretation

My English translation attempts to render the formulaic style of the inscription. It includes square brackets marking restoration, three dots signaling lacunae, and minor additions between round brackets. To aid the readers, I give Jacoby’s conversion of years to the Common Era.

2. Greek Text

A1. The Lost Fragment

1. ἀφ᾿ οὗ Κέκροψ Ἀθηνῶν ἐβασίλευσε, καὶ ἡ χώρα Κεκροπία ἐκλήθη τὸ πρότερον καλου|4μένη Ἀκτικὴ ἀπὸ Ἀκταίου τοῦ αὐτόχθονος, ἔτη ΧΗΗΗΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ.

2. ἀφ᾿ οὗ Δευκαλίων παρὰ τὸν Παρνασσὸν ἐν Λυκωρείαι ἐβασίλευσε, [βα]σιλε[ύ|5ο]ντος Ἀθηνῶν Κέκροπος, ἔτη ΧΗΗΗΔ.

3. ἀφ᾿ οὗ δίκη Ἀθήνησι [ἐγέ]νετο Ἄρει καὶ Ποσειδῶνι ὑπὲρ Ἁλιρροθίου τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος, καὶ ὁ τόπος ἐκλήθη |6 Ἄρειος Πάγος, ἔτη ΧΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)Δcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ, βασιλεύοντος Ἀθηνῶν Κρ[ανα]οῦ.

7. ἀφ᾿ οὗ Κάδμος ὁ Ἀγήνορος εἰς Θήβας ἀφίκετο [- – – ca. 30 – – – ] [καὶ] ἔκτισεν τὴν Καδμεί|13αν, ἔτη ΧΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($), βασιλεύοντος Ἀθηνῶν Ἀμφικτύονος.

8. ἀφ᾿ οὗ [- – – ca. 40 – – – ]νικης (?) ἐβασίλευσαν, |14 ἔτη ΧΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)ΙΙ, βασιλεύοντος Ἀθηνῶν Ἀμφικτύονος.

23. ἀφ᾿ οὗ οἱ [Ἕλλη]νες εἰς Τροίαν ἐ[στ]ράτευσ[αν], ἔτη character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five Hundred (&)ΗΗΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)ΙΙΙΙ, βασιλεύοντος Ἀθη[νῶν |39 Μεν]εσθέως τρεισκαιδεκάτου ἔτους.

26. ἀφ᾿ οὗ [Σαλαμῖνα |42 τὴν ἐγ] Κύπρωι Τεῦκρος ὤικισεν, ἔτη character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five Hundred (&)ΗΗΗΗΔΔΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ, βασιλεύοντος Ἀθηνῶν Δημοφῶντος.

29. ἀφ᾽ οὗ Ὅμηρος ὁ ποιητὴς ἐφάνη, ἔτη character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five Hundred (&)ΗΔΔΔΔΙΙΙ, βασιλεύοντο ᾽Αθηνῶ[ν Δ]ιογνήτου.

A2. The Ashmolean Fragment

31. ἀφ᾿ οὗ Ἀρχίας Εὐαγήτου δέκατος ὢν ἀπὸ Τημένου ἐκ Κορίνθου ἤγαγε τὴν ἀποικίαν [καὶ ἔκτισε] Συρακού[σσας, ἔτη – – – |48 β]α̣[σι]λεύ[ο]ν̣τος Ἀθηνῶν Αἰσχύλου ἔτους εἰκοστοῦ καὶ ἑνός.

32. ἀφ᾿ οὗ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἦρξεν ὁ ἄρχ̣ων, ἔτη ΗΗΗΗΔΔ.

40. ἀφ’ οὗ Πεισίστρατος Ἀθηνῶν ἐτυράννευσεν, ἔτη ΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)ΔΔΔΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙ, ἄρχοντος [Ἀθήνη]σ̣ι Κ[ω]μ̣[έ]ου.

44. ἀφ’ οὗ Δαρεῖος Περσῶν ἐβασίλευσ̣ε μάγου τελευτήσαντος, ἔτη [ΗΗ]character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five with Dot (*) Ι̣, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησ[ι – – – ].

45. ἀφ’ οὗ Ἁρμόδιος καὶ [Ἀριστογε]ίτων ἀπέκτε[ιναν |60 Ἵππα]​ρχον Πεισιστράτου δ̣[ιά]δ̣[οχ]ον (?), καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι [ἐξανέστ]ησαν τοὺς Πεισιστρατίδας ἐκ τ̣[οῦ Π]ε̣λασγικ̣οῦ τείχους, ἔτη ΗΗΔΔΔΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησιν Ἁ[ρ]π[ακ|61⟨⟨τίδου].

51. ἀφ’ οὗ Ξέρξης τὴν σχεδίαν ἔζευξεν ἐν Ἑλλησπόντωι καὶ τὸν Ἄθω διώρυξε, καὶ ἡ ἐν Θερμο[πύ]|67λαις μάχη ἐγένετο, καὶ ναυμαχία τοῖς Ἕλλησι περὶ Σαλαμῖνα πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας, ἣν ἐνίκων οἱ Ἕλληνες, ἔτη ΗΗΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙ, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Καλλιάδου.

52. ἀφ’ οὗ ἡ ἐν |68 Πλαταιαῖς μάχη ἐγένετο Ἀθηναίοις πρὸς Μαρδόνιον τὸν Ξέρξου στρατηγόν, ἣν ἐνίκων Ἀθηναῖοι, καὶ Μαρδόνιος ἐτελεύτησεν ἐν τῆι μάχηι, καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἐρύη ἐ[ν] |69 Σ̣ικελίαι περὶ τὴν Αἴτνην, ἔτη ΗΗΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)Ι, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Ξανθ̣ίππου.

53. ἀφ’ οὗ Γ[έ]λων ὁ Δεινομένους Σ[υρακο]υ[σσῶν] ἐτυράννευσεν, ἔτη ΗΗΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($), ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Τιμοσθέν[ους]. |70

55. ἀφ’ οὗ Ἱέρων Συρακουσσῶν ἐτυράννευσεν, ἔτη ΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Χά̣[ρ]ητος· ἦν δὲ καὶ Ἐπίχαρμος ὁ ποιητὴς κατὰ τοῦ|72τον.

56. ἀφ’ οὗ Σοφοκλῆς ὁ Σοφίλλου ὁ ἐκ Κολωνοῦ ἐνίκησε τραγωιδίαι, ἐτῶν ὢν ΔΔcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)ΙΙΙ, ἔτη ΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($)Ι, ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Ἀψηφίωνος.

57. ἀφ’ οὗ ἐν Αἰγὸς ποταμοῖς ὁ λίθος ἔπεσε, |73 καὶ Σιμωνίδης ὁ ποιητὴς ἐτελεύτησεν, βιοὺς ἔτη character: Greek Acrophonic Attic Fifty (#)ΔΔΔΔ, ἔτη ΗΗcharacter: Greek Acrophonic Attic Five ($), ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Θεαγενίδου.