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3. καλλίσφυρος in the Iliad and the Odyssey
Ἴδεώ θ’, ὃς κάρτιστος ἐπιχθονίων γένετ’ ἀνδρῶν
τῶν τότε· καί ῥα ἄνακτος ἐναντίον εἵλετο τόξον
Φοίβου Ἀπόλλωνος καλλισφύρου εἵνεκα νύμφης
θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσι περιπροχυθεὶς ἐδάμασσεν,
οὐδ’ ὁπότ’ ἠρασάμην Ἰξιονίης ἀλόχοιο,
ἣ τέκε Πειρίθοον θεόφιν μήστωρ’ ἀτάλαντον·
οὐδ’ ὅτε περ Δανάης καλλισφύρου Ἀκρισιώνης.
Danae appears only in the context of her relationship with Zeus. She is described simply as the mother of Perseos and as being καλλίσφυρος. The full story about her is clearly assumed to be familiar to the reader. She is not abducted by a god, as Marpessa is, but only raped. Nevertheless her mingling with Zeus has nearly fatal consequences. For Danae’s father Akrisios locks his daughter and new-born grandson into a larnax and puts them out to sea to die, out of fear of Perseos’ eventual power. The story is certainly archaic and was well known to Simonides who used it in a lyric poem about Danae’s lament when she is put out to sea.  The method used for her disposal is particularly striking, for the larnax served as a coffin in the Minoan civilization, and was put out to sea with the corpse in it.  The story of Danae is probably a mythical remnant of this early funerary practice. Like Marpessa, Danae suffers disappearance and a threat of death after mingling with a god, and, like Marpessa, she avoids death in the end. The details of her story that are not included here are perhaps symbolically inferred in her description as καλλίσφυρος.
Λευκοθέη, ἣ πρὶν μὲν ἔην βροτὸς αὐδήεσσα,
νῦν δ’ ἁλὸς ἐν πελάγεσσι θεῶν ἐξέμμορε τιμῆς.
ἥ ῥ’ Ὀδυσῆ’ ἐλέησεν ἀλώμενον, ἄλγε’ ἔχοντα·
Ino appears nowhere else in Homer, and she is significant as one of only two mortals who become gods in Homer. The full story surrounding this miraculous event appears in later sources. Ino’s husband Athamas goes mad and tries to kill his two sons. He murders one but Ino escapes with the other, Melikertes, and leaps with him into the sea from a cliff.  Homer does not include these details but seems to assume them, stressing only the fact of her transformation after her leap. Her mortal name Ino and her description as καλλίσφυρος at the end of line 333 are juxtaposed to Leukothea, her immortal name, which appears at the beginning of the following line. Though now a goddess, she was once a βροτὸς αὐδήεσσα. The ἣ πρὶν μὲν of her mortality explicitly contrasts with the νῦν δ’ of her acquired immortality.
εἴδωλον· αὐτὸς δὲ μετ’ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι
τέρπεται ἐν θαλίῃς καὶ ἔχει καλλίσφυρον Ἥβην,
παῖδα Διὸς μεγάλοιο καὶ Ἥρης χρυσοπεδίλου.
As in the passage about Ino, Heracles’ death is mentioned, but is immediately followed and countered by the news of his rebirth and immortality.