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XIV. Monuments of Other Cities
The Megarians set up a memorial, evidently a cenotaph (cf. no. 65), in their market place to commemorate the valor of their countrymen who died in the Persian Wars. For the valor of the Megarians at Artemisium and Salamis see Herodotus 8.1,45. At Plataea, however, the Megarian and Phliasian foot were routed by the Theban cavalry (Hdt. 9.69). Pausanias remarks on the graves of these heroes within the city but this memorial is probably a cenotaph for warriors buried on the battlefield (Frazer 1013,2: 533-534).
Pausanias is the only authority for the altar of Helios Eleutherios at Troezen. He suggests that the Troezenians set it up for their deliverance from the invasion of Xerxes (cf. no. 33) and he probably bases his suggestion (eikoti logo) on the epithet Eleutherios.
Pausanias speaks of a special stoa in the agora of Troezen, in which there were statues of women and children. The statues were designated, possibly by an inscription, as those of the Athenians whom the Troezenians sheltered during the invasion of Xerxes (cf. Hdt. 8.41). They commemorate the significant contribution Troezen made to the defense of Attica. Pausanias’ phraseology (eklipein sphisin aresan ten polin) may be a modification of the official language of the Themistocles decree (edoksen . . . ta tekna kai tas gunaikas eis Troizena katathesai). See Jameson 1960:198-223 and 1962 (cf. Doubtful Monuments, no. 1).
A cult of the winds was practiced at Thyia before the Persian Wars. The establishment of an altar there by the Delphians was probably an attempt to give Panhellenic significance to worship of the winds (Macan 1907,1: 265 and How and Wells 1912,2: 209). Thyia was the mother of Delphus by Apollo according to local legend (cf. Paus. 10.6.4; Preisendanz 1936); her name, meaning “stormy” (thuellai), suggests that she was associated with the winds.
Pausanias here mentions two statues of Apollo at Delphi, one dedicated by Epidaurus for the Persian Wars and the other by Megara for a victory over Athens at Nisaea. Epidaurus was given a place on the serpent column (no. 25) and on the statue of Zeus at Olympia (no. 26).
Pausanias says that the dedication of a bronze statue of an ox by the Carystians represents freedom to plow the land, thus connecting the economy of the state with the victory over Persia. The ox, however, might also represent strength and power, or it might be symbolic of a sacrifice (Rouse 1907: 145). Pausanias compares this dedication to the simlar one made by Plataea (no. 84).
Leonidas was buried on the battlefield at Thermopylae. Forty years later, according to Pausanias (See no. 36) his remains were reburied at Sparta. Herodotus speaks of a stone lion erected at Thermopylae in his honor and the phrase epi Leonidei should mean “over his grave”. The lion was, then, probably set up before Leonidas’ reburial at Sparta.
The Panhellenic dedication at Delphi at salamis was the statue of apollo holding in his hand the beak of a ship (see no. 29). Because the Aigenetans received the prize for valor apollo required them to make a separate offering. Accordingly their deication was of a bronze mast with three golden stars. The stars and mast mat be interpreted as symbolic of nautical skill.
Pausanias here relates a story in which Artemis befuddled Persian soldiers of the army of Mardonius in the region of Megara. For similar stories of the intervention of gods during the Persian Wars see nos. 14,16,19,23,55, and 72. There was a similar statue of Artemis the Saior in Pagae near Megara (no. 83). The date of the sculptor Strongylion is not known but he is probably of the late fifth century (cf. Lippold XXXX; Richter 1929: 245-246).
The statue of Artemis the Savior in Pagae is similar, as Pausanias says, to the one in Megara (no. 82). It was doubtless set up for the same occasion, commemorating the appearance of Artemis in the Megarid some time before the battle of Plataea (cf. Pausanias 1.40.2). Lippold thinks that Strongylion also made this statue.
Pausanias here says that Plataea dedicated at Delphi the statue of an ox in connection with the final defeat of the Persians under Mardonius. On the significance of ox dedications, see Rouse 1907: 145. Cf. Pausanias 10.16.6 and no. 75.
Herodotus (9.84) says that the body of Mardonius disappeared the day after the battle of Plataea. He does not know who buried it but he obviously heard stories of the burial and probably saw the tomb, since he says that many countries claimed to have buried Mardonius. Herodotus inclines to favor the story of burial by Dionysophanes of ephesus. Pausanias probably follows Herodotus on this point.
The manger of Mardonius was among the Persian spoils hich came into the hands of the Greeks after the battle of Plataea. All the cities that fought at Plataea must have acquired some of the spoils, which they dedicated in their own particular ways (cf. no. 58). Herodotus says that the manger of Mardonius in the sanctuary of Athena Alea in Tegea was a sight worth seeing.
Alexander I of Macedon fought and killed a Persian contingent passing through his territory while escaping from Plataea (Demosthenes 23.200). Philhellenic in sympathy, he sent to delphi a gilded statue of himself which Herodotus saw (8.121). The statue was probably of gilded bronze and a portrait of an ideal type (Macan 1907,1: 549).