Roilos, Panagiotis. 2006. Amphoteroglossia: A Poetics of the Twelfth Century Medieval Greek Novel. Hellenic Studies Series 10. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_RoilosP.Amphoteroglossia_Poetics_Twelfth_Century.2006.
Chapter 4. Comic Modulations
In Heav’n yclept Euphrosyne,
And by men, heart-easing Mirth,
Whom lovely Venus at a birth
With two sisters Graces more
To Ivy-crowned Bacchus bore;
Or whether (as som Sager sing)
The frolick Wind that breathes the Spring,
Zephir with Aurora playing,
As he met her once a-Maying,
There on Beds of Violets blew,
And fresh-blown Roses washt in dew,
Fill’d her with thee a daughter fair,
So bucksom, blith, and debonair.
Haste thee nymph, and bring with thee
Jest and youthful Jollity,
Quips and Cranks, and wanton Wiles,
Nods, and Becks, and Wreathed Smiles…
The Comic and the Novel: Genre Flexibility and Discursive Inclusiveness
παρεισενεγκεῖν καὶ γελοῖον τοῖς λόγοις·
τοῖς γὰρ λυπηροῖς καὶ γέμουσι τοῦ πάθους
καὶ χαρίεντα συγκεραννύειν δέον
καὶ ταῖς σκυθρωπαῖς ἱστοριογραφίαις
γελωτοεργοὺς παιδιὰς προσαγαγεῖν. 
It is neither radical nor artless
to introduce some comic elements in my narrative;
for one must mix sad and pathetic stories
with pleasant incidents,
and add some laughable diversions to gloomy chronicles.
Comic literature in twelfth-century Byzantium
Celebrating eros: banquets in the Greek novel
The poetics of euteleia: banquets and performances in the Komnenian novels
Heroic prowess and rustic performances
καὶ συμποτῶν κρότοι καὶ τρυφαὶ καὶ χάριτες,
ὀρχήματα καὶ κύμβαλα καὶ βοτρύων ἐκθλίψεις
καὶ ῥάγες ληνοβατούμεναι καὶ κοιλίαι πίθων πληρούμεναι. 
Iakobos, this is your feast: intoxication and drinking and dancing,
and clapping of the dinner-companions and indulgences and pleasures,
dances and cymbals and squeezing of grapes
and grapes pressed in wine-vats, and chock-full bellies of jars.
Cooking at the court: manipulating court rituals in Rhodanthe and Dosikles
ὑψοῦ καθεσθεὶς καὶ τιτανῶδες βλέπων,
τῆς σατραπικῆς στρατιᾶς εἰς τὸν θρόνον
ἱσταμένης κύκλωθεν εὐφυεῖ στάσει,
καλεῖν κελεύει τὸν σταλέντα σατράπην.
and staring with a titanic-like look,
and having his throne surrounded by the army of his satraps,
who were standing in an orderly position,
he commanded the [foreign] satrap be presented to him.
“Should a man get pregnant?” The rhetoric of the grotesque
τοῦ δεσπότου μου τὴν δύναμιν Μιστύλου,
ὡς ἐξαμείβειν ἰσχύει καὶ τὰς φύσεις,
καιναῖς ἀμοιβαῖς καὶ τροπαῖς πολυτρόποις
τρέπων ἕκαστα καὶ μεθιστῶν ὡς θέλει.
ὁρᾷς τὸν ἀρνὸν ὡς κυΐσκει στρουθία·
τῆς φύσεως μὲν ἀγνοήσας τὸν νόμον,
ὡς πτηνὸν ὄρνιν πτηνὸς ὄρνις ἐκκύει,
ἀρνὸς πετεινὰ βλαστάνει τῶν ἐγκάτων.”
the power of my master Mistylos,
how he can transform even nature,
changing and altering things as he wishes,
with extraordinary modifications and in various ways.
You see how the lamb gives birth to birds;
ignoring the laws of nature
and like the winged birds that give birth to winged birds,
the lamb brings forth birds from its viscera.”
καὶ στρατιώτας ἄνδρας, ἁδροὺς ὁπλίτας,
σπάθαις σὺν αὐταῖς καὶ μετ’ αὐτῶν ἀσπίδων,
γεννήτορας δείξειε πολλῶν σκυλάκων,
καὶ γαστέρας θώραξιν ἠσφαλισμένας
ἐγκυμονεῖν πείσειεν ξένα.
in the middle of a battle,
he could make the manly soldiers, the vigorous warriors
—in spite of their swords and shields—
give birth to numerous puppies,
and he could persuade their bellies,
even if they are protected by shields,
to become pregnant with marvelous children.
εἴ που δεήσει φυσικῷ πάντως λόγῳ
γάλακτος ὁλκοῖς ἐκτραφῆναι τὰ βρέφη;
ἄλλως δὲ καὶ πῶς τὴν τοσαύτην αἰσχύνην
ἀνὴρ στρατάρχης καρτερήσειν ἰσχύσει
ἐγκυμονῶν ἄθλιος ἄθλια βρέφη;
if, as is natural,
the babies need to be fed with milk?
And, in any case, how can a manly general
bear such a shame,
if the poor fellow gets pregnant with detestable babies?
Playing with fire: parodic allusions to hymnography
ὁρῶμεν ἐπὶ σοὶ Θεοτόκε.
ἀποροῦσι γὰρ λέγειν τὸ πῶς
καὶ παρθένος μένεις καὶ τεκεῖν ἴσχυσας …
Χαῖρε φιλοσόφους ἀσόφους δεικνύουσα.
Χαῖρε τεχνολόγους ἀλόγους ἐλέγχουσα.
Χαῖρε ὅτι ἐμωράνθησαν οἱ δεινοὶ συζητηταί·
Χαῖρε ὅτι ἐμαράνθησαν οἱ τῶν μύθων ποιηταί. 
Before you, Mother of God, we see
wordy orators as voiceless as fish:
they are at a loss to explain
how it is that you are still a virgin and yet had the power to give birth …
Hail to you who show the philosophers to be fools.
Hail to you who prove men of letters to be men of no wisdom.
Hail to you, for able disputers have been shown to be idiots.
Hail to you, for the composers of mythical poetry have been made to wane. 
Οὐκ οἶδα σποράν, οἶδα σε λύτην τῆς φθορᾶς
… ὡς γὰρ ἔλιπες μήτραν ἐμὴν φυλάξας σῴαν αὐτήν. 
You are my fruit, you are my life …
I have not experienced impregnation, I have experienced you as the savior from the decay
… since you left my womb preserving it intact.
τοῦ δεσπότου μου τοῦ μεγίστου τὸ κράτος,
ὡς ἐξαμείβει καὶ τυραννεῖ τὰς φύσεις,
ψυχρὰν δὲ ποιεῖ τοῦ πυρὸς τὴν οὐσίαν …
ἀρνοὺς δὲ ποιεῖ στρουθοπάτορας ξένους 
καὶ μήτραν ἀρτίφλεκτον ἐξωπτημένην,
βρεφῶν ἀκαύστων, ἐμβρύων καταπτέρων
γεννήτριαν δείκνυσιν ἐκ μόνου λόγου.
the power of my mighty master,
how it transforms and governs nature,
the essence of fire making cool,
the lambs it makes marvelous parents of birds,
and the womb that has just been burnt and roasted
his power turns into the mother of unburnt, winged embryos,
only by means of words.
ἐξεικόνισε κάμινος τρόπον.
οὐ γὰρ οὓς ἐδέξατο φλέγει νέους ὡς οὐδὲ πῦρ
τῆς Θεότητος Παρθένου ἣν ὑπέδυ νηδύν. 
The cool furnace prefigured the nature
of the miracle in a supernatural manner:
it did not burn the Three Children whom it received,
exactly as the fire of divinity did not burn the womb of the Virgin when it entered it.
οἱ τῆς παλαιᾶς πυρπολούμενοι νέοι
ὑπερφυῶς κύουσαν, ἐσφραγισμένην. 
By not being burnt,
the Three Children of the Old Testament represent
the womb of the Virgin, which, albeit sealed, gives supernatural birth.
Staging miracles in Rhodanthe and Dosikles: the clown as a poet and the narrator as a jester
“Dancing like a Baccha”: the carnivalesque and the role of providence in Drosilla and Charikles
τέθεικεν “ὑμῖν συγχαρήσομαι, ξένοι
τὴν σήμερον,” λέγουσα, “συμπάρεστέ μοι
καὶ συγχορεύσω τῷ θεῷ Διονύσῳ
παθόντας οἰκτρὰ προσφυῶς ἡνωκότι.
“I’ll join you in your joy, my friends,
today,” she said, “and you join me,
and I’ll dance with you in honor of the god Dionysos,
who aptly united you after your pitiable sufferings.”