Yatromanolakis, Dimitrios. 2008. Sappho in the Making: The Early Reception. Hellenic Studies Series 28. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_YatromanolakisD.Sappho_in_the_Making.2008.
Chapter 4. Traditions in Flux
that I live in three dimensions,
in a space non-lyrical and non-rhetorical,
with a horizon real because movable.
They themselves do not know
how much they bring in empty hands.
“I owe them nothing,”
love would say
on this open question.
(trans. M. J. Krynski and R. A. Maguire)
Reception as Reenacted “Script”
ἐν ἐννέ᾽ ἂν χορδαῖς κατεγλυκάνατο
these, by Zeus, neither Gnesippos nor Kleomenes
could sweeten with nine strings.
Two other fragments refer to the possible consumption of (inexpensive) saltfish and to the habit of the Athenians (when they hold a meal in honor of the Dioskouroi in the prutaneion) to set upon the tables cheese and cakes made of coarse meal and wine, as well as ripe olives and leeks, as a reminder of the ancient lifestyle.  Given the title and the remains of the play, banquets for beggars and the poor could have been envisaged or experienced on the Athenian stage during the performance of this play but any outline of the plot would be considerably speculative. Even if one questioned the attribution of the Beggars to Khionides,  it would not affect the present investigation. I have already considered the lascivious songs assigned to the figure of Gnesippos, the paigniagraphos tês hilaras mousês,  by fifth-century informants. Here he is juxtaposed with another musical figure—Kleomenes—and possibly associated with musical tendencies attributed to Phrynis. 
Σαπφοῦς, Μελήτου, Κλεομένους, Λαμυνθίου
the erôtika songs I have learned thoroughly,
those of Sappho, Meletos, Kleomenes, Lamynthios.
Lais in Epikrates’ Antilais was allegorically represented as a predatory eagle, when young, and as a teras, acting as portent, when old and wrinkled.  A famous late fifth-century hetaira, mentioned by the early middle-comic playwright Philetairos as “having died while being fucked,”  Lais was thought of as being erotically associated with the philosophers Aristippos and Diogenes and even with the painter Apelles; the latter, gazing at her beauty, fell in love with her while she (still a virgin) carried water from the spring of Peirene in Korinthos; and Apelles soon requested her, though not a professional courtesan, to accompany him to a symposion that his hetairoi had prepared.  Interestingly, it was said about Lais that Aphrodite Melainis of Korinthos used to appear to her by night as the goddess of the dark and to give her signs about near-future affluent lovers  —an idea that would provide certain receptorial filters to those listening either to Sappho fragment 134 V (※ Ζὰ ἐλεξάμαν ὄναρ Κυπρογενηα, “I conversed with you in a dream, Kypronegeia” or “I spoke in a dream with Kyprogeneia”) in the context of the recurrent assimilation of the poetic “I” of Psappho into the speaking voice of Aphrodite, or to fragment 101 V, where the singing voice addresses Aphrodite: 
χερρόμακτρα δὲ †καγγόνων†
πορφύραι †καταυταμενἀ- 
τατιμάσεις† ἔπεμψ᾽ ἀπὺ Φωκάας
δῶρα τίμια †καγγόνων†
handcloths . . .
purple . . . [fine?, perfumed?, floating with the breeze?]
. . . [she?] sent from Phokaia,
prized gifts . . . 
Even so, in the Antilais, the juxtaposition of Sappho with the three “noncanonical” male poets suggests that Epikrates would classify her love songs with theirs—that is, the content of her songs would not prevent them from being considered purely and simply as erôtika, without any further contextual qualifications.  In principle, a love song by a male poet like Meletos could have been either pederastic in its perspective or addressed and referring to a seductive young woman or beloved.  It should be recalled here that the elusive figure of Meletos was known for his erotic skolia in the late fifth century.  For the fifth-century poet Lamynthios of Miletos, we hear that he composed an erotic melos called Lydê—a song that, like the late fifth/early fourth-century Kolophonian poet Antimakhos’ Lydê, was about or addressed to his beloved hetaira, “the barbarian Lydê.”  Therefore, the erôtika of Sappho, placed by Epikrates in the same cultural category as those of male poets, would have been conveniently assimilated in the socioaesthetic paradigm of pederastic poetry or otherwise marked erotic song culture.
πρὶν καὶ μολεῖν κεῖνον, ἀνίστω,
μὴ κακόν <σε> μέγα ποιήσηι
κἀμὲ τὰν δειλάκραν.
ἁμέρα καὶ ἤδη· τὸ φῶς
διὰ τᾶς θυρίδος οὐκ εἰσορῆις;
Oh, what afflicts and aches you? Don’t betray us, I beg you.
Get up before he [my husband] comes,
lest he do great harm to you
and me, pitiable woman that I am.
The light of day is already come; don’t you
see it through the window?
The affinities of this song with other compositions are multiple and marked: Sappho in fragment 1 V presents Aphrodite asking Psappho, who was afflicted by anguish and pain, “who is wronging” her. In a song composed in the so-called Praxilleion meter and assigned to Praxilla of Sikyon—a melos possibly included in her paroinia or readily assimilated into sympotic skolia—we hear the speaking voice addressing a female figure as follows: ὦ διὰ τῶν θυρίδων, “you who look beautifully in through the window, a virgin by your face but a married woman in the lower part of your body.”  A skolion transmitted in the edition of the paroinia of Praxilla was also attributed to Sappho and Alkaios.  The use of the plural ἄμμ’ in line 1 of the Lokrian song that Athenaios transmits can shed some light on the intricate function of plurals and singulars in Sappho. The traditional symposiastic image δάκτυλος ἀμέρα in a song of Alkaios addressed to a companion (ἄϊτα)  is reversed in the Lokrian ode—both songs conveying a sense of performative urgency.  The question here is not whether this particular Lokrian song is old or not  —how can one be certain, in any case?—or whether Klearkhos in this passage had written Ἰωνικὰ ᾄσματα (“Ionic songs”) instead of the transmitted ἐρωτικὰ ᾄσματα (“erotic songs”) as Wilamowitz believed,  but rather why toward the end of the fourth century Anakreon’s and Sappho’s songs were so closely compared to Lokrian adulterous poetic idioms. Klearkhos’ discussion points to cultural cognitive models and taxonomic discourses comparable to those explored earlier in this book.
The Paradigm of Comedy
An Anatomy of Representations
Note that the fragmentary list provides names and plays of poets of both the fifth and the fourth centuries. The two plays have been attributed to Ameipsias, since “[o]nly Ameipsias is known to have written both a Moichoi and a Sappho.” 
ἀλλότριον †εἰσελθὼν ὄψον ἐσθίειν μάθηι 
ἀσύμβολόν τε χεῖρα προσβάληι βορᾶι,
διδόναι νόμιζ’ αὐτὸν σὺ τῆς νυκτὸς λόγον
For when a young man
enters [another man’s house without being seen?]
and puts a hand to the food without contributing his share,
you should believe that he pays his reckoning in the night.
It is thought-provoking that the only surviving fragment from the Sappho of Timokles similarly refers to men’s attraction to young men:
ἀνθοῦσι τοῖς νέοισιν ἠρεθισμένος
Misgolas does not seem to make approaches to you,
although he is inflamed by young men in their bloom.
Misgolas was an Athenian often thought to be characterized by an intense passion for homoerotic pursuit.  Contemporary poets like Alexis parodied him for being especially attracted to young kitharôidoi (“singers to the accompaniment of the kithara”) or kitharistai (“kithara-players”): 
τὸν Μισγόλαν· οὐ γὰρ κιθαρωιδός εἰμ’ ἐγώ
mother, I implore you, do not threaten me with Misgolas;
for I am not a kitharôidos.
Although the plots of both Ephippos’ and Timokles’ Sappho are tantalizingly elusive, Diphilos’ Sappho allows us a glimpse of some of the characters involved in the play.  From this comedy, the date of which is not certain, a fragment and an indirect reference to an intriguing aspect of the plot survive. Fragment 70 K-A probably shows Arkhilokhos in the context of a symposion,  while fragment 71 K-A reports that Arkhilokhos and Hipponax were presented in the play as lovers of Sappho. I would like to draw attention to the fact that, as the broader context of this reference indicates (Athenaios 13.599c–d), Arkhilokhos and Hipponax were “lovers” of Sappho in the sense of “suitors,” since, as in the case of Alkaios and Anakreon as suitors of Sappho in Hermesianax’s Leontion,  each poet would attempt to win her love independently. Note that in Diphilos’ Sappho the figures chosen to be “suitors” of Sappho are composers of invective verses. Whether either of the two poets succeeded in attracting her interest in this play remains unknown, given the scrappiness of the available sources. 
αὑτῆς, ὄντα δ’ ἄφωνα βοὴν ἵστησι γεγωνὸν
καὶ διὰ πόντιον οἶδμα καὶ ἠπείρου διὰ πάσης
οἷς ἐθέλει θνητῶν, τοῖς δ’ οὐδὲ παροῦσιν ἀκούειν
ἔξεστιν· κωφὴν δ’ ἀκοῆς αἴσθησιν ἔχουσιν5
SAPPHO: There is a female being hiding under the folds
of her garment 
baby children,  and, although voiceless, they raise a
sonorous, loud cry
across both the swelling sea and over every land
to whomever they wish; and for those not present it is
to hear it; and those obtuse in their sense of hearing . . . 
From the outset it is intriguing that the riddle and the solutions offered—in a manner reminiscent of an epistemology of interpretation—are replete with ambiguities, linguistic and cultural. The wordings βρέφη ὑπὸ κόλποις (line 1), βοὴν γεγωνόν (line 2), as well as—in what follows the lines quoted here—the word ῥήτορας (line 7), the position of ἀεί in line 11, the almost technical sense of ἀκριβῶς in line 15, and the occurrence of λαλεῖ in line 19 are carefully exploited. This particular scene was impressive enough to stir the interest of medieval Greek authors. Sappho’s ainigma is cited by Eustathios of Thessalonike in the twelfth century,  and lines 1–5 and 17–19 are quoted in the section on problêmata and ainigmata of the appendix to the Palatine Anthology by the thirteenth-century Greek monk Maximos Planoudes.  More importantly, the riddle was repropounded in a different version attributed to an eleventh-century Greek writer known for his ainigmata, Basileios Megalomitis.  Otto Mazal assigned this version of the riddle to the fragmentary twelfth-century novel Aristandros and Kallithea by Konstantinos Manasses,  but this is far from certain, given that what has been preserved from the novel is mainly quotations of gnomic character in Makarios Khrysokephalos’ fourteenth-century anthology ῾Ροδωνιά, in two other anonymous florilegia, and in Maximos Planoudes’ Collection from Diverse Books.  This is not the place to consider extensively this version of Sappho’s riddle but I should point out that attempts have been made to show that Basileios misread the ancient Greek lines of Antiphanes,  even though it is by far more likely that he created his own version of the ainigma. 
βρέφη δ’ ἐν αὑτῆι διατρέφει τοὺς ῥήτορας.
οὗτοι κεκραγότες δὲ τὰ διαπόντια
τἀκ τῆς Ἀσίας καὶ τἀπὸ Θράικης λήμματα
ἕλκουσι δεῦρο. νεμομένων δὲ πλησίον10
αὐτῶν κάθηται λοιδορουμένων τ’ ἀεὶ
ὁ δῆμος οὐδὲν οὔτ’ ἀκούων οὔθ’ ὁρῶν.
(Σαπφώ.) ˘ ̄ ¯ ˘ ¯ πῶς γὰρ γένοιτ’ ἄν, ὦ πάτερ,
ῥήτωρ ἄφωνος; (B.) ἢν ἁλῶι τρὶς παρανόμων.
˘ ̄ ¯ ˘ ¯ καὶ μὴν ἀκριβῶς ὠιόμην 15
ἐγνωκέναι τὸ ῥηθέν. ἀλλὰ δὴ λέγε.
B: The (female) being of which you speak is a city,
and the babes she nourishes within her are the public speakers.
These, by their clamoring, draw here
profits across the sea from Asia
and from Thrace. But the people (dêmos), neither hearing
nor seeing anything, sit near them
while they share and consume, and rail at one another ever.
SAPPHO: . . . For how, father,  could
a public speaker (rhêtôr) be voiceless?
B: If he is convicted three times of making illegal proposals. 
. . . I thought indeed that I understood
precisely what you were speaking about. But do tell me yourself.
His reaction is that of a classical Athenian citizen—legalism, corruption, public apathy, androcentrism, and complacency are fully exposed. At the center of the riddle, his response to it, and its final solution lies a ventriloquized feminine discourse. Both the polis and the epistle are female and, as such, they nourish within them discursive and performative phuseis of considerable significance and plasticity. The writing of the epistle, as well as that of the polis, is also represented as female, while the silent reading of the epistle’s letters by people not present  is given a performative dynamic comparable to that of a song—a dynamic reminiscent of Poseidippos’ later image of Sappho’s “voice-giving pages” (φθεγγόμεναι σελίδες): 
βρέφη δ’ ἐν αὑτῆι περιφέρει τὰ γράμματα·
ἄφωνα δ’ ὄντα <ταῦτα> τοῖς πόρρω λαλεῖ
οἷς βούλεθ’· ἕτερος δ’ ἂν τύχηι τις πλησίον 20
ἑστὼς ἀναγιγνώσκοντος οὐκ ἀκούσεται
SAPPHO: The female being, then, is an epistle,
and the babes she carries around within her are the letters;
they, although voiceless, speak to those far away,
whom(ever) they wish; and if some other person happens to
stand near the one who is reading, he will not hear.
The polis, although grammatically feminine, represents the male public sphere of sociopolitical exchanges while the masculine dêmos is seated voiceless and deaf before the civic performance space of the rhêtores. Sappho’s riddle was also presented within a performance space almost exclusively dominated by male and ventriloquized female discourses. The levels of the male hermeneutic perspective in the fragment are more complex than a confidently straightforward “playing the other” analytical schema would capture.  Sappho’s riddle renders her an authoritative figure whose voice has a performative efficacy (βοὴν γεγωνόν) comparable to her archaic, mostly orally transmitted songs.
Performance and Metonymy
Herodotos, Oral Traditions, and Symposia
The story of Rhodopis is skillfully juxtaposed with other narratives about women and prostitution in the context of Herodotos’ account of the succession of Egyptian kings in the second book of his Histories. Proteus—the king who, according to a logos that Herodotos adduces (2.112), allowed Helen to stay with him till Menelaos came to Egypt to take her back to Sparta—was succeeded by Rhampsinitos (2.121). It is in the account of Rhampsinitos’ reign that we hear of a story according to which the king, in his effort to catch a cunning thief, set his daughter in a room as a prostitute and commanded her, before she sleeps with any of the men who would come to her, to compel them to tell her the cleverest and worst thing they had ever done.
θρῆνον ἔμμεν’ < . . . . . . .> οὔ κ’ ἄμμι πρέποι τάδε
For it is not right in a house of those who serve the Muses
that there be lament . . . that would not befit us.
Be that as it may,  mousopoios should certainly be considered in the context of the intense, sudden popularization of terms for “making poetry” in the fifth century: ποιητής, ποίησις, μελοποιός (“maker of songs”), and a number of other compound words employing the suffix –ποιός.  In fact, in the fifth-century, Euripides employs mousopoios twice:  in both cases it refers to the future memorialization of heroes by performers and poets.
χαίτης ἥ τε μύρων ἔκπνοος ἀμπεχόνη,
ᾗ ποτε τὸν χαρίεντα περιστέλλουσα Χάραξον
σύγχρους ὀρθρινῶν ἥψαο κισσυβίων·
Σαπφῷαι δὲ μένουσι φίλης ἔτι καὶ μενέουσιν
ᾠδῆς αἱ λευκαὶ φθεγγόμεναι σελίδες.
οὔνομα σὸν μακαριστόν, ὃ Ναύκρατις ὧδε φυλάξει
ἔστ’ ἂν ἴῃ Νείλου ναῦς ἐφ’ ἁλὸς πελάγη.
Dorikha, your bones fell asleep [long ago] and the band(s)
of your hair and the perfume-emanating wrap
with which you once covered handsome Kharaxos,
and, skin to skin, you grasped the morning wine-cups.
But Sappho’s white  phonating  columns
of dear song still remain and will remain.
Blessed is your name, which Naukratis will thus preserve
as long as a ship sails from the Nile on the open sea.
I want to focus here on two aspects of this complex epigram. First, it would be difficult to maintain that it is merely an unequivocal celebration of—a praise poem composed for—a seductive woman. In an intertextual response to Sappho, Poseidippos playfully exploits the discrepancy between his apparent eulogy and Sappho’s negative poetic reaction to the affair between Kharaxos and Dorikha. Note that the epigram does not focus on other aspects of Dorikha’s career but on this specific affair.  In lines 5 and 6, the learned epigrammatist constructs a multilayered representation of the “lucid,” “resounding” columns of Sappho’s “dear” song.  In his emphatic transition to the song-making of Sappho, he confirms that the papyrus roll containing the performative utterances of her odes will remain a speaking testimony to the story and to Dorikha’s accomplishment to become a theme for a song or songs composed by Sappho.  Among other possible aspects, Poseidippos chooses to single out the “morning wine-cups” that Dorikha shared with Kharaxos, thus associating the couple with one of the most significant performative spaces within which their story circulated.
Strabon makes explicit that such a song or songs existed and that Sappho called Kharaxos’ lover Dorikha. He further provides some explanation for Kharaxos’ activity in Naukratis: the trade of Lesbian wine, famous as it was in the context of drinking-parties throughout Greece.  A similar point (κατ’ ἐμπορίαν) is made later by Athenaios in his discussion of famous courtesans from Naukratis (13.596b–d); he does not specify what kind of trade Kharaxos went to Naukratis for. Athenaios refers to Sappho’s poetry against Dorikha, although in [Ovid] Heroides 15.63–70 Sappho is portrayed as giving faithfully much advice and warning to Kharaxos (me quoque, quod monui bene multa fideliter, odit) and in Herodotos’ narrative it is Kharaxos who is rebuked by her.  Athenaios also comes into dialogue with Herodotos’ discussion of the two Naucratite courtesans and quotes Poseidippos’ epigram about Dorikha. He, however, adds the important observation that “Herodotos calls her [i.e., Dorikha] Rhodopis, being unaware (ἀγνοῶν) that she [Rhodopis] is different from Dorikha.” 
].ύχαι λι.[ ]ε̣νος κλ[
].[ ] 8
Κύ]πρι κα[ί σ]ε πι[κροτ. ́.]α̣ν ἐπεύρ[οι
μη]δὲ καυχάσ[α]ι̣το τόδ’ ἐννέ[ποισα
Δ]ω̣ρίχα τὸ δεύ[τ]ερον ὠς ποθε[
]ερον ἦλθε. ※
Kypris, may [she/he] also find you bi[tter ] 9
and may [she?], telling of this, not boast . . .
Dorikha how [ ] a second time
[ ] came.
This is the text as printed by Voigt. Lobel and Page’s text presents some crucial differences, including the restoration ὠς πόθε[ννον | εἰς] ἔρον ἦλθε in lines 11 and 12, which can be rendered as “how [he] came a second time [to longed-for] eros.”  For line 5 it has been thought that the text might be restored on the basis of Sappho fragment 5.5 V (ὄσσα δὲ πρ]όσθ’ [ ἄμ]βροτε κῆ[να . . . , “and all the mistakes [he] did before . . . ”),  but this is highly uncertain, since the left-hand part of lines 5–8 (]οσθ’[, ]αταισ̣[, etc.) comes from a separate papyrus scrap that has been tentatively attached to the main fragment. Similarly problematic is λί[μ]ε̣νος (“harbor”) for line 7. 
ἴ]σα κἀ[ς] π̣ολ̣ίας κῦμ’ ἄλ[ο]ς ἐσ̣β̣[ά]λην.
´̣]πε[ . . ]ε.ι̣ς τοῦτ’ οὐκ οἶδε̣ν, ἔ̣μ̣ο̣ι̣ π[ί]θην,
ὂ]ς̣ π[όρν]αισιν ὀμίλλει, τάδε γί̣νε[τ]α̣[ι·
δεύε̣[ι] μα[.] αὔτω τ̣ὼ χρήμ̣̣ατος̣ [ἄψερο]ν
α]ἶσχος κα̣[ὶ κα]κ̣ό[τα]τ’ ὠλ̣ο̣μέν̣[αν
πόλλαν.[ . . . . ]´[.]των, ψ̣εύδ̣η δε[…..]σ̣αι
what one gives to a prostitute
is the same as thrown into the waves of the grey sea.
[ . . . one?] does not know this, I can persuade him;
if one consorts with prostitutes, these things happen to him:
after the business itself he must [suffer]
dishonor and much accursed distress . . .
Such a trenchant or admonitory style would not be inconsistent with other fragments, including Sappho 99 L-P explored in Chapter Three.  The poetic subject in fragment 55 V is acerbic in its prediction of an ominous future for the addressee:
ἔσσετ’ οὐδ’ ἔπος <εἰς> ὔστερον· οὐ γὰρ πεδέχηις βρόδων
τὼν ἐκ Πιερίας, ἀλλ’ ἀφάνης κἀν Ἀίδα δόμωι
φοιτάσηις πεδ’ ἀμαύρων νεκύων ἐκπεποταμένα.
when you are dead you will lie there and never any memory
or any verse for you will there be in the future; for you have
no share in the roses of Pieria, but unnoticed in the house of Hades too
your soul will wander among the faded corpses. 
This song may reflect aspects of social competition in the turbulent political milieu of late-seventh- and early-sixth-century Mytilene. Even so, reciprocally antagonistic language was part of Sappho’s poetic discourse, as can be inferred from fragment 37 V, in which the singing voice directly—or as an intradiegetic speaker within a broader narrative—  expresses the wish: “may winds and worries carry off the one who rebukes me.”  The occurrence of discursive features of blame poetry in Sappho has been perceptively analyzed by Antonio Aloni,  and Herodotos’ point about Sappho rebuking Kharaxos intensely in song should be viewed in this context.
Reperformance, Genre, and Textual Plasticity: The Anatomy of Improvisation
ἀντρέψεις ἔτι τὰν πόλιν· ἁ δ’ ἔχεται ῥοπᾶς. 1234/1235
You, fellow, you who seek the great power,
you’ll turn the city upside down yet; its fate trembles in the balance.
The scholia on Aristophanes Thesmophoriazousai 162 provide the following text for Alkaios fragment 141.3 V (p. 265 Dübner):
This fellow who seeks the great power.
Moreover, the scholia on Wasps 1232 preserve lines 3 and 4 of the fragment: †ὤνησαι† οὗτος ὁ μαιόμενος τὸ μέγα κράτος | †τρέψεις† τάχα τὴν πόλιν· ἁ δὲ ἔχεται ῥοπᾶς,  while a first-century AD papyrus fragment confirms the reading ὤνηρ for line 3.  This is how fragment 141.3–4 is printed by Voigt:
ὀν˼τρέψ˻ει τάχα τὰν πόλιν· ἀ δ’ ἔχεται ῤόπας
Philokleon’s version in the Wasps introduces the address “you, fellow” in the song, an address intended for Kleon. He also uses ἔτι (“yet”) instead of τάχα (“soon”) in his second line. In the context of the imaginary dinner-party he is reenacting with Bdelykleon, the political song of Alkaios seems most appropriate to be performed as a sympotic skolion, especially since skolia were often addressed or related to hetairoi and focused on sociopolitical themes and contemporary politics.  Although thus constructed by Aristophanes for the purposes of this imagined symposiastic scene, the version performed by Philokleon might reflect possible mechanisms of adaptation of other archaic compositions—reperformed as skolia—in the context of drinking-parties and related venues. The different versions of the Harmodios skolion support this approach.  The performance of skolia involved the practice of “capping”: they were often sung by symposiasts holding a twig of laurel or myrtle that was passed on to the next performer who would attempt to cap the previous song. Improvisation, an element of “performance genres that are not prescriptively notated,”  should have been part of the singing and recitation of skolia.  Recall that Theognidea 453–456 W starts with the address ὦνθρωπ(ε) and Theognidea 595–598 W with ἄνθρωπ(ε);  a large number of the compositions included in the Theognidea focused on sympotic life among hetairoi and were presumably performed, improvised, and reperformed on related occasions. 
Under every stone, my hetairos, look out for a scorpion.
The skolion preserved in the Attic collection of skolia in Athenaios offers a different version:
φράζευ μή σε βάληι· τῶι δ’ ἀφανεῖ πᾶς ἕπεται δόλος.
Under every stone, my hetairos, a scorpion lies hidden;
watch out lest it sting you; the unseen is accompanied by
every kind of trickery.
The two songs present striking similarities, as they exploit the same proverbial pronouncement.  However, the use of ὦ ἑταῖρε suggests that both of them were part of the ever-expanding repertoire sung in sympotic contexts.  In such a context, it would be difficult for the reception of a song—a παροίνιον—by Praxilla to remain unaffected by the performance and reperformance of skolia that focused on exactly the same theme and displayed marked similarities in phrasing. A song like Praxilla fragment 750 PMG might be conducive, I argue, to the composition of multiforms transmitted anonymously and performed by hetairoi as skolia.
†δευρυμμεκρητε̣σιπ̣[.]ρ̣[ ] |.† ναῦον 1
ἄγνον ὄππ̣[αι ] | χάριεν μὲν ἄλσος
μαλί[αν], | β̣ῶμοι δ’ ἔ<ν>ι θυμιάμε-
νοι [λι]|β̣ανώτω<ι>· 4
ἐν δ’ ὔδωρ ψῦχρ˻ον˼ | κελάδει δι’ ὔσδων
μαλίνων, | βρόδοισι δὲ παῖς ὀ χῶρος
ἐσκί|αστ’, αἰθυσσομένων δὲ φύλλων |
κῶμα †καταιριον· 8
ἐν δὲ λείμων | ἰπ̣π̣όβοτος τέθαλε
†τω̣τ . . . (.)ριν|νοισ† ἄνθεσιν, αἰ <δ’> ἄηται
μέλλι|χα πν[έο]ισιν [
[ ] 12
ἔνθα δὴ σὺ †συ.αν† | ἔλοισα Κύπρι
χρυσίαισιν ἐν κυ|λίκεσσιν ἄβρως
<ὀ>μ<με>μεί|χμενον θαλίαισι | νέκταρ
[Hither . . . from Crete] to . . . holy temple,
where is a graceful grove
of apple trees—and altars
smoking with frankincense.
In it cool water babbles through apple
boughs and all the place is shadowed
with roses, and from quivering leaves
enchanted sleep comes down.
And there in a meadow, where horses browse,
blooms with flowers [of spring?], and breezes
blow softly [
there, Kypris, take . . .
pouring delicately in golden cups
nectar that is mingled with
our festivities. 
This fragment, as printed in Voigt’s edition, might be deemed a somewhat tentative, albeit critically established, version of how the corrupt text written on the third-century BC ostrakon that preserves it should be understood. Debate continues about different readings of the fragment.  Here I shall not focus on the complicated textual problems that it presents. I shall only point out that the conjecture ἐ̣π̣[ὶ τόνδ]ε̣ ναῦον (“to this temple”) is not compelling, given the paleographic uncertainties of line 1. As the fragment stands, there is no deictic [τόνδ]ε̣. Some scholars deem the hypothetical supplement τόνδ[ε̣ necessary for their argument that the song is a cult hymn and the “temple” mentioned is a real one.  This idea supports the reconstruction of the so-called circle of Sappho as a religious or initiatory group of girls under the leadership of the poet. However, it should be observed that there is nothing in the fragment to suggest that the landscape described is not imaginary. 
Ψά˼πφ’, ˻ἀδίκησι; 20
κα˼ὶ γ˻ὰρ αἰ φεύγει, ταχέως διώξει,
αἰ δὲ δῶρα μὴ δέκετ’, ἀλλὰ δώσει,
αἰ δὲ μὴ φίλει, ταχέως φιλήσει
κωὐκ ἐθέλοισα. 24
for if she flees, soon she’ll be pursuing;
if she does not accept gifts, she’ll be giving them;
if she does not love, soon she will love
even against her will.
Of longstanding debate is whether in line 24 the original reading was κωὐκ ἐθέλοισα (“[she will love] even against her will”) or κωὐκ ἐθέλοισαν.  In the former case, the gender of the person who will soon pursue and love is certainly female.  In the latter case, κωὐκ ἐθέλοισαν refers to “Psappho,” and the gender of the person who wrongs her remains ambivalent: it could, in principle, be either female or male (“[s/he will love you] even if you do not want”).  The majority of critical editors and literary critics have endorsed and argued in favor of κωὐκ ἐθέλοισα.  The question here is not whether Sappho was explicit or perhaps intentionally ambiguous. Diverse performers and audiences could have “rewritten” this line of the song in view of the cultural idioms investigated in Chapters Two and Three.
Textual Plasticity and Dialogues
Σαπφοῦς φορμίζων ἱμερόεντα πόθον,
γιγνώσκεις· ὁ δ᾽ ἀοιδὸς ἀηδόνος ἠράσαθ’, ὕμνων
Τήϊον ἀλγύνων ἄνδρα πολυφραδίῃ. 50
Καὶ γὰρ τὴν ὁ μελιχρὸς ἐφημίλλητ’ Ἀνακρείων
στελλομένην πολλαῖς ἄμμιγα Λεσβιάσιν·
φοίτα δ’ ἄλλοτε μὲν λείπων Σάμον, ἄλλοτε δ’ αὐτὴν
οἰνηρῇ δειρῇ κεκλιμένην πατρίδα
Λέσβον ἐς εὔοινον· τὸ δὲ Μύσιον εἴσιδε Λεκτὸν 55
πολλάκις Αἰολικοῦ κύματος ἀντιπέρας.
And you know in how many komastic revels the Lesbian Alkaios
participated,  as he sang to the lyre of his yearning desire
for Sappho; the bard loved that nightingale and,
by the eloquence of his songs, caused distress to the man of Teos.
For the honey-voiced Anakreon contended for Sappho,
who was surrounded by, mingled with, many Lesbian women;
and sometimes he would leave Samos, sometimes
his own fatherland that lies on the vine-rich hill,
and visit wine-abounding Lesbos; and often he gazed upon Mysian Lekton 
across the Aeolian wave.
This catalogue formed part of the third book of Hermesianax’s Leontion, a poetic composition in elegiac couplets (apparently inspired by his mistress Leontion)  which, as late as 1995, was confidently defined by experts as “surely the silliest surviving product of its age.” 
αἴδως . . .
I want to tell you something, but I am prevented
by shame . . .
and [Sappho] advises him not to speak such words:
καὶ μή τί τ᾽ εἴπην γλῶσσ᾽ ἐκύκα κάκον,
αἴδως †κέν σε οὐκ† ἦχεν ὄππατ᾽,
ἀλλ᾽ ἔλεγες †περὶ τῶ δικαίω 
But if you desired things good or beautiful,
and your tongue were not concocting something bad to say,
shame would not seize your eyes,
but you would speak about what you claim [?].
If one compares this scenario to the poetic exchange between Anakreon and Sappho mentioned by Khamaileon, their similarities are pronounced, mutatis mutandis. In the second case the source is Aristotle, in the first the Peripatetic Khamaileon. Note that Khamaileon argues that others had suggested (λέγειν τινάς φησιν) that idea with regard to Anakreon fragment 358 PMG. Aristotle states that “Sappho composed the following lines, when Alkaios said: ‘I wish to tell you . . . ’.”  In other words, Alkaios is represented as the composer of a song to which Sappho responded. While we might argue that the lines must be ascribed to one poet, most probably Sappho,  and that one should not go so far as to set aside lines 3–6 as spurious with Maas and Voigt,  there is yet no reason to give Aristotle credit for being, or trying to be, accurate in identifying the speakers in the dialogue. Had Sappho introduced either Alkaios’ or her name in the song?  If either were true, would that entail that the dialogue might refer to an actual event? In this regard, we observe that a fragmentary song of Sappho similarly presents the speaking “I” addressing a male figure and advising him to choose a younger woman: 
οὐ γὰρ τλάσομ’ ἔγω σύν <τ’> οἴκην ἔσσα γεραιτέρα
But if you are a friend, take the bed of a younger woman;
for I shall not bring myself to live with you while I am the older
βάλλων χρυσοκόμης Ἔρως
ἡ δ’, ἐστὶν γὰρ ἀπ’ εὐκτίτου 5
Λέσβου, τὴν μὲν ἐμὴν κόμην,
λευκὴ γάρ, καταμέμφεται,
πρὸς δ’ ἄλλην τινὰ χάσκει.
Once again golden-haired Eros,
striking me with a purple ball,
challenges me to play with
a girl with embroidered sandals.
But she, for she is from
well-built Lesbos, blames
my hair, because it is white,
and she is gaping at another.
Moreover, Khamaileon reports that Sappho in turn composed the following song and addressed it to Anakreon, although we are not told whether it was again some others who had circulated this idea before him: 
ὕμνον, ἐκ τᾶς καλλιγύναικος ἐσθλᾶς
Τήιος χώρας ὃν ἄειδε τερπνῶς
You uttered that song, O golden-throned Muse,
which the illustrious old Teian man
from the fine land of beautiful women
The latter song has received almost no attention by scholars, since it has been deemed spurious and classified as a fragmentum adespotum. However, for the cultural economy that conditioned the multilayered shaping of Sappho the song is most intriguing.