Wells, James Bradley. 2010. Pindar's Verbal Art: An Enthnographic Study of Epinician Style. Hellenic Studies Series 40. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_WellsJ.Pindars_Verbal_Art.2010.
Introduction. Philology as Perspective on the Interaction of Language and Social Life 
In contrast to the referential function of language, Jakobson defines the poetic function as “[t]he set (Einstellung) toward the message as such, focus on the message for its own sake” (1960:356; cf. Jakobson 1956:84–85 and Waugh 1980:58).  Linguistic anthropologists Richard Bauman and Charles Briggs explain that “the poetic function manipulates the formal features of the discourse to call attention to the formal structures by which the discourse is organized” (Bauman and Briggs 1990:73). Since “[t]he verbal structure of a message depends primarily on the predominant function” (Jakobson 1960:353) and since Pindar’s songs are forms of verbal art, we should expect that, in terms of Jakobson’s model, the poetic function is dominantly constitutive of epinikion.  Since, as Bauman and Briggs go on to say, performance is “the enactment of the poetic function,” the appropriate focus for a study of epinician style, which embraces performance and speech, is the poetic function of language (Bauman and Briggs 1990:73).  In Pindar’s Verbal Art the referential function of language, which existing studies of epinician language privilege, is subordinate to the poetic function of language. Such methodological appropriateness inheres in the ethnographic thrust of Pindar’s Verbal Art.
Since Pindar’s victory songs survive as an entextualized record of the epinician register, that text also bears information about the speech event of epinician performance, the context to which the use of the epinician register is dedicated.  A crucial sociological dimension of the use of the epinician register is its artistic style of communication with culture-specific patterns of participant interaction. By treating Pindar’s language as a register, a sociological conception of style, the epinician text turns out to be a record of interaction among the participants in performance, so that it is possible to move analytically from entextualized words to historically embodied voices.
In Chapter Five I will explore each of these stylistic dynamics in the course of a sociolinguistic analysis of Pindar’s Olympian 1.