Tsagalis, Christos. 2008. The Oral Palimpsest: Exploring Intertextuality in the Homeric Epics. Hellenic Studies Series 29. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_TsagalisC.The_Oral_Palimpsest.2008.
Chapter 12. Mapping the Hypertext: Similes in Iliad XXII
Similes as a ‘Dramatic’ Summary of the Main Narrative
σευάμενος ὥς θ᾿ ἵππος ἀεθλοφόρος σὺν ὄχεσφιν,
ὅς ῥά τε ῥεῖα θέησι τιταινόμενος πεδίοιο·
ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς λαιψηρὰ πόδας καὶ γούνατ᾿ ἐνώμα.
He spoke, and stalked away against the city, with high thoughts
in mind, and in tearing speed, like a racehorse with his chariot
who runs lightly as he pulls the chariot over the flat land.
Such was the action of Achilleus in feet and quick knees.
παμφαίνονθ᾿ ὥς τ᾿ ἀστέρ᾿ ἐπεσσύμενον πεδίοιο,
ὅς ῥά τ᾿ ὀπώρης εἶσιν, ἀρίζηλοι δέ οἱ αὐγαί
φαίνονται πολλοῖσι μετ᾿ ἀστράσι νυκτὸς ἀμολγῷ,
ὅν τε κύν᾿ Ὠρίωνος ἐπίκλησιν καλέουσιν·
λαμπρότατος μὲν ὅ γ᾿ ἐστί, κακὸν δέ τε σῆμα τέτυκται,
καί τε φέρει πολλὸν πυρετὸν δειλοῖσι βροτοῖσιν·
ὣς τοῦ χαλκὸς ἔλαμπε περὶ στήθεσσι θέοντος.
The aged Priam was the first of all whose eyes saw him
as he swept across the flat land in full shining, like that star
which comes on in the autumn and whose conspicuous brightness
far outshines the stars that are numbered in the night’s darkening,
the star they give the name of Orion’s Dog, which is brightest
among the stars, and yet is wrought as a sign of evil
and brings on the great fever for unfortunate mortals.
Such was the flare of the bronze that girt his chest in his running.
βεβρωκὼς κακὰ φάρμακ᾿, ἔδυ δέ τέ μιν χόλος αἰνός,
σμερδαλέον δὲ δέδορκεν ἑλισσόμενος περὶ χειῇ,
ὣς Ἕκτωρ ἄσβεστον ἔχων μένος οὐχ ὑπεχώρει,
πύργῳ ἔπι προύχοντι φαεινὴν ἀσπίδ᾿ ἐρείσας.
But as a snake waits for a man by his hole, in the mountains,
glutted with evil poisons, and the fell venom has got inside him,
and coiled about the hole he stares malignant, so Hektor
would not give ground but kept unquenched the fury within him
and sloped his shining shield against the jut of the bastion.
ῥηϊδίως οἴμησε μετὰ τρήρωνα πέλειαν,
ἣ δέ θ᾿ ὕπαιθα φοβεῖται, ὃ δ᾿ ἐγγύθεν ὀξὺ λεληκώς
ταρφέ᾿ ἐπαΐσσει, ἑλέειν τέ ἑ θυμὸς ἀνώγει,
ὣς ἄρ᾿ ὅ γ᾿ ἐμμεμαὼς ἰθὺς πέτετο, τρέσε δ᾿ Ἕκτωρ
τεῖχος ὕπο Τρώων, λαιψηρὰ δὲ γούνατ᾿ ἐνώμα.
As when a hawk in the mountains who moves lightest of things flying
makes his effortless swoop for a trembling dove, but she slips away
from beneath and flies and he shrill screaming close after her
plunges for her again and again, heart furious to take her;
so Achilleus went straight for him in fury, but Hektor
fled away under the Trojan wall and moved his knees rapidly.
ῥίμφα μάλα τρωχῶσι, τὸ δὲ μέγα κεῖται ἄεθλον,
ἢ τρίπος ἠὲ γυνή, ἀνδρὸς κατατεθνηῶτος,
ὣς τὼ τρὶς Πριάμοιο πόλιν πέρι δινηθήτην
As when about the turn posts racing single-foot horses
run at full-speed, when a great prize is laid up for their winning,
a tripod or a woman, in games for a man’s funeral,
so these two swept whirling about the city of Priam
in the speed of their feet.
ὄρσας ἐξ εὐνῆς διά τ᾿ ἄγκεα καὶ διὰ βήσσας,
τὸν δ᾿ εἴ πέρ τε λάθησι καταπτήξας ὑπὸ θάμνῳ,
ἀλλά τ᾿ ἀνιχνεύων θέει ἔμπεδον, ὄφρα κεν εὕρῃ,
ὣς Ἕκτωρ οὐ λῆθε ποδώκεα Πηλείωνα.
As a dog in the mountains who has flushed from his covert
a deer’s fawn follows him through the folding ways and the valleys,
and though the fawn crouched down under a bush and be hidden
he keeps running and noses him out until he comes on him;
so Hektor could not lose himself from swift-footed Peleion.
οὔτ᾿ ἄρ᾿ ὃ τὸν δύναται ὑποφεύγειν, οὔθ᾿ ὃ διώκειν –
ὣς ὃ τὸν οὐ δύνατο μάρψαι ποσίν, οὐδ᾿ ὃς ἀλύξαι.
As in a dream a man is not able to follow one who runs
from him, nor can the runner escape, nor the other pursue him,
so he could not run him down in his speed, nor the other get clear.
ὅς τ᾿ εἶσιν πεδίονδε διὰ νεφέων ἐρεβεννῶν
ἁρπάξων ἢ ἄρν᾿ ἀμαλὴν ἢ πτῶκα λαγωόν·
ὣς Ἕκτωρ οἴμησε τινάσσων φάσγανον ὀξύ.
He made his swoop, like a high-flown eagle
who launches himself out of the murk of the clouds on the flat land
to catch away a tender lamb or a shivering hare; so
Hektor made his swoop, swinging his sharp sword.
Ἕσπερος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν οὐρανῷ ἵσταται ἀστήρ,
ὣς αἰχμῆς ἀπέλαμπ᾿ εὐήκεος, ἣν ἄρ᾿ Ἀχιλλεύς
πάλλεν δεξιτερῇ, φρονέων κακὸν Ἕκτορι δίῳ,
εἰσορόων χρόα καλόν, ὅπῃ εἴξειε μάλιστα.
And as a star moves among stars in the night’s darkening,
Hesper, who is the fairest star who stands in the sky, such
was the shining from the pointed spear Achilleus was shaking
in his right hand with evil intention toward brilliant Hektor.
He was eyeing Hektor’s splendid body, to see where it might best give way.
2. ἀστήρ (Achilles)
3. δράκων ὀρέστερος (Hector)
2. ἀεθλοφόροι ἵπποι (Achilles—Hector)
3. κύων-νεβρὸς ἐλάφοιο (Achilles—Hector)
4. ὄνειρος (Achilles—Hector)
2. ἀστήρ (Achilles)
|RACE||ACHILLES||CONFLICT||PERPETUATION OF THE PURSUIT|
|ἀεθλοφόρος ἵππος (Iliad XXII 21–24)||ἀστήρ (Iliad XXII 25–32)||δράκων – ἀνήρ (Iliad XXII 93–97)||ὄνειρος (Iliad XXII 199–201)|
|ἀεθλοφόροι ἵπποι (Iliad XXII 162–166)||ἀστήρ (Iliad XXII 317–321)||κίρκος – πέλεια (Iliad XXII 139–144)|
|κύων – νεβρὸς ἐλάφοιο (Iliad XXII 189–193)|
|αἰετός – *λαγωός (Iliad XXII 308–311)|
Intratextual Sequences and Hypertextual Imaging