Tsagalis, Christos. 2008. The Oral Palimpsest: Exploring Intertextuality in the Homeric Epics. Hellenic Studies Series 29. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_TsagalisC.The_Oral_Palimpsest.2008.
Chapter 9. Genealogy and Poetic Imagery of a Homeric Formula
Genealogy of verses XXI 6, 528, 532 and XXII 1
The Formula πεφυζότες ἠΰτε νεβροί//-ούς (Stupefied Like Fawns)
The metrical form of the above verses is the following:
– – – ⏑ | ⏑ – ⏑ tr | ⏑ – ⏑ ⏑ | – ⏑ ⏑ – – (XXI 29)
Migrating Formulas and Intertextual Imagery
τίφθ᾿ οὕτως ἔστητε τεθηπότες ἠΰτε νεβροί,
αἵ τ᾿ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἔκαμον πολέος πεδίοιο θέουσαι,
ἑστᾶσ᾿, οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τίς σφι μετὰ φρεσὶ γίνεται ἀλκή;
ὣς ὑμεῖς ἔστητε τεθηπότες, οὐδὲ μάχεσθε.
ἦ μένετε Τρῶας σχεδὸν ἐλθέμεν, ἔνθά τε νῆες
εἰρύατ εὔπρυμνοι, πολιῆς ἐπὶ θινὶ θαλάσσης,
ὄφρα ἴδητ᾿ αἴ κ᾿ ὔμμιν ὑπέρσχῃ χεῖρα Κρονίων;
Argives, you arrow-fighters, have you no shame, you abuses?
Why are you simply standing there bewildered, like young deer
who after they are tired from running through a great meadow
stand there still, and there is no heart of courage within them?
Thus are you standing still bewildered and are not fighting.
Or are you waiting for the Trojans to come close, where the strong-sterned
ships have been hauled up along the strand of the grey sea,
so you may know if Kronos’ son will hold his hand over you?
Ξάνθου δινήεντος, ὃν ἀθάνατος τέκετο Ζεύς,
ἔνθα διατμήξας τοὺς μὲν πεδίονδ᾿ ἐδίωκεν
πρὸς πόλιν, ᾗ περ Ἀχαιοὶ ἀτυζόμενοι φοβέοντο
ἤματι τῷ προτέρῳ, ὅτ᾿ ἐμαίνετο φαίδιμος Ἕκτωρ·
τῇ ῥ᾿ οἵ γε προχέοντο πεφυζότες, ἠέρα δ᾿ Ἥρη
πίτνα πρόσθε βαθεῖαν ἐρυκέμεν· ἡμίσεες δέ
ἐς ποταμὸν εἰλέοντο βαθύρροον ἀργυροδίνην.
ἐν δ᾿ ἔπεσον μεγάλῳ πατάγῳ, βράχε δ᾿ αἰπὰ ῥέεθρα,
ὄχθαι δ᾿ ἀμφὶ περὶ μεγάλ᾿ ἴαχον· οἳ δ᾿ ἀλαλητῷ
ἔννεον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἑλισσόμενοι κατὰ δίνας.
ὡς δ᾿ ὅθ᾿ ὑπὸ ῥιπῆς πυρὸς ἀκρίδες ἠερέθονται
φευγέμεναι ποταμόνδε, τὸ δέ φλέγει ἀκάματον πῦρ
ὄρμενον ἐξαίφνης, ταὶ δὲ πτώσσουσι καθ᾿ ὕδωρ,
ὣς ὑπ᾿ Ἀχιλλῆος Ξάνθου βαθυδινήεντος
πλῆτο ῥόος κελάδων ἐπιμὶξ ἵππων τε καὶ ἀνδρῶν.
But when they came to the crossing place of the fair-running river
of whirling Xanthos, a stream whose father was Zeus the immortal,
there Achilleus split them and chased some back over the flat land
toward the city, where the Achaians themselves had stampeded in terror
on the day before, when glorious Hektor was still in his fury.
Along this ground they were streaming in flight; but Hera let fall
a deep mist before them to stay them. Meanwhile the other half
were crowded into the silvery whirls of the deep-running river
and tumbled into it in huge clamour, and the steep-running water
sounded, and the banks echoed hugely about them, as they out-crying
tried to swim this way and that, spun about in the eddies.
As before the blast of a fire the locusts escaping
into a river swarm in air, and the fire unwearied
blazes from a sudden start, and the locusts huddle in water;
so before Achilleus the murmuring waters of Xanthos
the deep-whirling were filled with confusion of men and of horses.
φεύγοντες πιμπλᾶσι μυχοὺς λιμένος εὐόρμου
δειδιότες· μάλα γάρ τε κατεσθίει ὅν κε λάβησιν·
ὣς Τρῶες ποταμοῖο κατὰ δεινοῖο ῥέεθρα
πτῶσσον ὑπὸ κρημνούς. ὃ δ᾿ ἐπεὶ κάμε χεῖρας ἐναίρων,
ζωοὺς ἐκ ποταμοῖο δυώδεκα λέξατο κούρους,
ποινὴν Πατρόκλοιο Μενοιτιάδαο θανόντος·
τοὺς ἐξῆγε θύραζε τεθηπότας ἠΰτε νεβρούς,
δῆσε δ᾿ ὀπίσσω χεῖρας ἐϋτμήτοισιν ἱμᾶσιν,
τοὺς αὐτοὶ φορέεσκον ἐπὶ στρεπτοῖσι χιτῶσιν,
δῶκε δ᾿ ἑταίροισιν κατάγειν κοίλας ἐπὶ νῆας·
As before a huge-gaping dolphin the other fishes
escaping cram the corners of a deepwater harbour
in fear, for he avidly eats up any he can catch;
so the Trojans along the course of the terrible river
shrank under the bluffs. He, when his hands grew weary with killing,
chose out and took twelve young men alive from the river
to be vengeance for the death of Patroklos, the son of Menoitios.
These, bewildered with fear like fawns, he led out of the water
and bound their hands behind them with thongs well cut out of leather,
with the very belts they themselves wore on their ingirt tunics,
and gave them to his companions to lead away to the hollow ships.
ἄστεος αἰθομένοιο, θεῶν δέ ἑ μῆνις ἀνῆκεν,
πᾶσι δ᾿ ἔθηκε πόνον, πολλοῖσι δὲ κήδε᾿ ἐφῆκεν,
ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς Τρώεσσι πόνον καὶ κήδε᾿ ἔθηκεν.
ἑστήκει δ᾿ ὁ γέρων Πρίαμος θείου ἐπὶ πύργου·
ἐς δ᾿ ἐνόησ᾿ Ἀχιλῆα πελώριον, αὐτὰρ ὑπ᾿ αὐτοῦ
Τρῶες ἄφαρ κλονέοντο πεφυζότες, οὐδέ τις ἀλκή
γίνεθ᾿· ὃ δ᾿ οἰμώξας ἀπὸ πύργου βαῖνε χαμᾶζε,
ὀτρύνων παρὰ τεῖχος ἀγακλειτοὺς πυλαωρούς·
῾῾πεπταμένας ἐν χερσὶ πύλας ἔχετ᾿, εἰς ὅ κε λαοί
ἔλθωσι προτὶ ἄστυ πεφυζότες· ἦ γὰρ Ἀχιλλεύς
ἐγγὺς ὅδε κλονέων· νῦν οἴω λοίγι᾿ ἔσεσθαι.
αὐτὰρ ἐπεί κ᾿ ἐς τεῖχος ἀναπνεύσωσιν ἀλέντες,
αὖτις ἐπ᾿ ἂψ θέμεναι σανίδας πυκινῶς ἀραρυίας·
δείδια γάρ, μὴ οὖλος ἀνὴρ ἐς τεῖχος ἄληται.᾿᾿
ὣς ἔφαθ᾿· οἳ δ᾿ ἄνεσάν τε πύλας καὶ ἀπῶσαν ὀχῆας,
αἳ δὲ πετασθεῖσαι τεῦξαν φάος. αὐτὰρ Ἀπόλλων
ἀντίος ἐξέθορε, Τρώων ἵνα λοιγὸν ἀμύναι.
οἳ δ᾿ ἰθὺς πόλιος καὶ τείχεος ὑψηλοῖο
δίψῃ καρχαλέοι, κεκονιμένοι ἐκ πεδίοιο
φεῦγον· ὃ δὲ σφεδανὸν ἔφεπ᾿ ἔγχεϊ, λύσσα δέ οἱ κῆρ
αἰὲν ἔχε κρατερή, μενέαινε δὲ κῦδος ἀρέσθαι.
And as when smoke ascending goes up into the wide sky
from a burning city, with the anger of the gods let loose upon it
which inflicted labour upon them all, and sorrow on many,
so Achilleus inflicted labour and sorrow upon the Trojans.
The aged Priam had taken his place on the god-built bastion,
and looked out and saw gigantic Achilleus, where before him
the Trojans fled in the speed of their confusion, no war strength
left them. He groaned and descended to the ground from the bastion
and beside the wall set in motion the glorious guards of the gateway;
‘Hold the gates wide open in your hands, so that our people
in their flight can get inside the city, for here is Achilleus
close by, stampeding them, and I think there will be disaster.
But once they are crowded inside the city and get wind again,
shut once more the door-leaves closely fitted together.
I am afraid this ruinous man may spring into our stronghold’.
He spoke, and they spread open the gates and shoved back the door bars
and the gates opening let in daylight. Meanwhile Apollo
sprang out to meet them, so that he could fend off destruction
from the Trojans, who, straight for the city and the lift of the rampart
dusty from the plain and throats rugged with thirst, fled
away, and Achilleus followed fiercely with the spear, strong madness
forever holding his heart and violent after his glory.
ἀσπάσιοι προτὶ ἄστυ· πόλις δ᾿ ἔμπλητο ἀλέντων.
οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τοί γ᾿ ἔτλαν πόλιος καὶ τείχεος ἐκτός
μεῖναι ἔτ᾿ ἀλλήλους καὶ γνώμεναι, ὅς τε πεφεύγοι
ὅς τ᾿ ἔθαν᾿ ἐν πολέμῳ, ἀλλ᾿ ἐσσυμένως ἐσέχυντο
ἐς πόλιν, ὅν τινα τῶν γε πόδες καὶ γοῦναι σαώσαι.
ὣς οἳ μὲν κατὰ ἄστυ, πεφυζότες ἠΰτε νεβροί,
ἱδρῶ ἀπεψύχοντο πίον τ᾿ ἀκέοντό τε δίψαν,
κεκλιμένοι καλῇσιν ἐπάλξεσιν· αὐτὰρ Ἀχαιοί
τείχεος ἄσσον ἴσαν, σάκε᾿ ὤμοισι κλίναντες.
All this time the rest of the Trojans fled in a body
gladly into the town, and the city was filled with their swarming.
They dared no longer stay outside the wall and outside the city
to wait for each other and find out which one had got away
and who had died in the battle, so hastily were they streaming
into the city, each man as his knees and feet could rescue him.
So along the city the Trojans, who had run like fawns, dried
the sweat off their bodies and drank and slaked their thirst, leaning
along the magnificent battlements. Meanwhile the Achaians
sloping their shields across their shoulders came close to the rampart.