The Oral Palimpsest: Exploring Intertextuality in the Homeric Epics

  Tsagalis, Christos. 2008. The Oral Palimpsest: Exploring Intertextuality in the Homeric Epics. Hellenic Studies Series 29. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies.



All translations of the Iliad are taken from Lattimore 1951, and of the Odyssey from Rieu 2003 (= 1946). For Aristotle I have consulted Halliwell 1995; for Herodotus, Waterfeld 1998; for the Homeric Hymns, West 2003; for Philostratus, Berenson, Maclean, and Aitken 2003 (= 2001); for Proclus, Burgess 2001; for Livy, Foster 1919; for Ovid’s Fasti, Frazer 19892 (= 1931); for Propertius, Goold 1990; for Virgil, Fairclough 1918.


I have also made ample use of both the TLG and the following concordances and formular analysis indices: Tebben 1977 (Homeric Hymns), 1994 (Odyssey), 1998 (Iliad); Pavese and Boschetti 2003 (Iliad and Odyssey).

Adam, A.-M. 1985. “Monstres et divinités tricéphales dans l’ Italie primitive.” Mélanges de l’ école française d’ Athènes 97:577–609.

Ahl, F. and Roisman, H. M. 1996. The Odyssey Reformed. Ithaca and London.

Alden, M. 1995. “Ναυσικά η Μαινάς.” In Εὐχὴν Ὀδυσσεῖ: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 335–351. Ithaki.

———. 2000. Homer Beside Himself: Para-Narratives in the Iliad. Oxford.

Alexiou, M. 2002. The Ritual Lament in Greek Tradition. 2nd ed. Revised by D. Yatromanolakis and P. Roilos. Lanham, MD.

Allen, G. 2000. Intertextuality. London.

Allen, T. W., ed. 1912. Homeri Opera. Vol. 5. Oxford.

———, ed. 1917–1919. Homeri Opera. Vols. 3–4. Oxford.

Allen, T. W. and Sikes, E. E., eds. 1904. The Homeric Hymns. Oxford.

Allen W. S. 1973. Accent and Rhythm. Prosodic Features of Latin and Greek: A Study in Theory and Reconstruction. Cambridge.

———. 1987. Vox Graeca: The Pronunciation of Classical Greek. 3rd ed. Cambridge.

Aloni, A. 1986. Tradizioni arcaiche della Troade e composizione dell’ Iliade. Milan.

Alton E. H. et al., eds. 1978. P. Ovidi Nasonis Fastorum Libri Sex. Leipzig.

Ameis, K. F. and Hentze, C. 1889. Anhang zu Homers Odyssee. Leipzig.

Anastassiou, I. 1971. Zum Wortfeld “Trauer” in der Sprache Homers. Hamburg.

Anderson, W. S. 1964. “Hercules Exclusus, Propertius IV, 9.” American Journal of Philology 85:1–12.

———. 1992. “The Limits of Genre.” In The Interpretation of Roman Poetry: Empiricism or Hermeneutics?, ed. K. Galinsky, 96-103. Frankfurt am Main.

Arce, J. 1986. ‘Cacus.’ LIMC III 1:177–178.

Arend, W. 1933. Die typische Scenen bei Homer. Berlin.

Arnould, D. 1990. Le rire et les larmes dans la littérature grecque d’ Homère à Platon. Paris.

Ashmole, B. 1967. “A New Interpretation of the Portland Vase.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 87:1–17.

Athanassakis, A. N. 1976. The Homeric Hymns. Baltimore.

———. 1977. The Orphic Hymns: Text, Translation and Notes. Missoula, MT.

Austin, N. 1975. Archery at the Dark of the Moon. Berkeley.

———. 1994. Helen of Troy and her Shameless Phantom. Ithaca and London.

Autenrieth, G. 1984. Homeric Dictionary. London.

Bakker, E. J. 1988. Linguistics and Formulas in Homer: Scalarity and the Description of the Particle per. Amsterdam and Philadelphia.

———. 1990. “Homeric Discourse and Enjambment: A Cognitive Approach.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 120:1–21

———. 1995. “Noun-Epithet Formulas, Milman Parry, and the Grammar of Poetry.” In Homeric Questions: Proceedings of a Colloquium Organized by the Netherlands Institute at Athens, ed. J. P. Crielaard, 97–125. Amsterdam.

———. 1997. Poetry in Speech: Orality and Homeric Discourse. London.

———. 1999. “Homeric ΟΥΤΟΣ and the Poetics of Deixis.” Classical Philology 94:1–19.

———. 2001a. “Similes, Augment, and the Language of Intimacy.” In Speaking Volumes: Orality and Literacy in the Greek and Roman World, ed. J. Watson, 1–23. Leiden.

———. 2001b. “The Greek Gilgamesh, or the Immortality of Return.” In Eranos: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 331–353. Ithaki.

———. 2001c. “Homer, Hypertext, and the World of Myth.” In Varieties and Consequences of Orality and Literacy/Formen und Folgen von Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit: Franz Bäuml zum 75.Geburtstad, ed. U. Schaefer and H. Spielmann, 149–160. Tübingen.

———. 2005. Pointing at the Past: From Formula to Performance in Homeric Poetics. Cambridge, MA.

Bakker, E. J. and Fabricotti, F. 1991. “Peripheral and Nuclear Semantics in Homeric Diction: The Case of Dative Expressions for ‘Spear’.” Mnemosyne 44:63–84.

Barber, E. A., ed. 1960 (repr. 1978). Sexti Properti Carmina. 2nd ed. Oxford.

Barnes, H. R. 1979. “Enjambment and Oral Composition.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 109:1–10.

Barringer, J. M. 1988. Divine Escorts: Nereids in Archaic and Classical Art. Ann Arbor.

Barthes, R. 1975. S/Z (trans. R. Miller). London.

Bassett, S. E. 1923. “The Second Necyia Again.” American Journal of Philology 44:44–52.

———. 1926. “The So-called Emphatic Position of the Runover Word in the Homeric Hexameter.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 57:116–148.

———. 1938. The Poetry of Homer. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Baud-Bovy, S. 1973. “Ἡ ἐπικράτηση τοῦ δεκαπεντασύλλαβου στὸ ἑλληνικὸ δημοτικὸ τραγούδι.” Hellenika 26:301–313.

Bauman, R. 1978. Verbal Act as Performance. Rowley, MA.

Bechtel, F. 1914. Lexilogus zu Homer. Halle.

Beck, D. 2005. Homeric Conversation. Washington, DC.

Benveniste, E. 1954. “Problèmes sémantiques de la reconstruction.” Word 10:251-264.

Berenson Maclean, J. K. and Aitken, E. B. 2001. Flavius Philostratus. Heroikos. Atlanta.

Bernabé, A., ed. 1987. Poetarum Epicorum Graecorum Testimonia et Fragmenta (PEG 1). Leipzig.

———, ed. 2004. Poetarum Epicorum Graecorum Testimonia et Fragmenta (PEG 2). Munich.

Bethe, E., ed. 1900–1931 (repr. 1967). Pollucis Onomasticon. Vols. 1–2 (Lexicographi Graeci 9.1–9.2). Leipzig.

———. 1914. Homer: Dichtung und Sage. Vol. 1 (Ilias). Leipzig and Berlin.

———. 1922. Homer: Dichtung und Sage. Vol. 2. Leipzig.

Blazquez Martínez, J. M. 1983. “Gerión y otros mitos griegos en Occidente.” Gerión 1:21–38.

Block, J. H. 1995. The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth. Leiden.

Boedeker, D. 1974. Aphrodite’s Entry into Greek Epic. Leiden.

Bömmer, F. 1957–1958. P. Ovidius Naso. Die Fasten. Vol. 1 (Einleitung, Übersetzung). Vol. 2 (Kommentar). Heidelberg.

Bowra, C. M. 1960. “Homeric Epithets for Troy.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 80:17.

Boyer R. et al. 1989. L’ Homme Indo-Européen et le sacré. Milan.

Bréal, M. 1863. Hercule et Cacus: Étude de mythologie. 2nd ed. Paris.

Brize, P. 1980. Die Geryoneïs des Stesichoros und die frühe griechische Kunst. Würzburg.

———. 1988. ‘Geryoneus.’ LIMC IV.1:186–190.

Brosse, J. 1993. Mythologie des arbres. Paris.

Burgess, J. 2001. The Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle. Baltimore and London.

———. 2002. “Kyprias, the Kypria, and Multiformity.” Phoenix 56:234–245.

———. 2004. “Untrustworthy Apollo and the Destiny of Achilles: Iliad 24.55–63.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 102:21–40.

———. 2006. “Neoanalysis, Orality, and Intertextuality: An Examination of Homeric Motif–Transference.” Oral Tradition 21:148–189.

Burkert, W. 1979. Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

———. 1983. Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (trans. P. Bing). Berkeley.

———. 1985. Greek Religion (trans. J. Raffan). Cambridge.

Burnet, J., ed. 1900–1907 (repr. 1967). Platonis Opera. Vols. 1–5. Oxford.

Cairns, F. 1992. “Propertius 4.9: Hercules Exclusus and the Dimensions of Genre.” In The Interpretation of Roman Poetry: Empiricism or Hermeneutics?, ed. K. Galinsky, 65–95. Frankfurt am Main.

Calame, C. 1977. Les choeurs de jeunes filles en Grèce archaïque. Rome.

Cambitoglou, A., Aelian, C., and Chamay, J. 1986. Le peintre Darius et son milieu. Geneva.

Campbell, D. A. 1993. Greek Lyric: The New School of Poetry and Anonymous Songs and Hymns. Vol. 5. Cambridge, MA.

Carpenter, T. H. 1986. Dionysiac Imagery in Archaic Greek Art: Its Development in Black-Figure Vase Painting. Oxford.

Càssola, F., ed. 1975. Inni omerici. Rome.

Cazzaniga, I., ed. 1962. Metamorphoseon Synagoge. Milan.

Chafe, W. 1994. Discourse, Consciousness, and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speech and Writing. Chicago.

Chantraine, P. 1927. Histoire du parfait grec. Paris.

———. 1955. Review of G. P. Shipp, “Studies in the Language of Homer.” Transactions of the Cambridge Philological Society 8 (1953). Revue de philologie 29:72–73.

———. 1968–1980. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Vols. 1–2. Paris.

———. 1986–1988. Grammaire homérique. Vols. 1–2. 6th ed. Paris.

Chatzis, A., ed. 1914 (repr. 1967). Kaine Historia (Fragmenta). Der Philosoph and Grammatiker Ptolemaios Chennos. Paderborn.

Cingano, E. 2005. “A Catalogue Within a Catalogue: Helen’s Suitors and the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women (frs. 196–204).” In The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women: Constructions and Reconstructions, ed. R. Hunter, 118–152. Cambridge.

Clader, L. L. 1976. Helen: The Evolution from Divine to Heroic in Greek Epic Diction. Leiden.

Clark, D. 1987. Studies in Odyssey 13–24, (dissert. University of Cambridge). Cambridge.

Clark, M. 1994. “Enjambment and Binding in Homeric Hexameter.” Phoenix 48:85–114.

———. 1997. Out of Line: Homeric Composition Beyond the Hexameter. Lanham, MD.

Clayman, D. L. and van Nortwick, 1977. “Enjambment in Greek Hexameter Poetry.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 107:85–92.

Clayton, B. 2004. A Penelopean Poetics: Reweaving the Feminine in Homer’s Odyssey. New York.

Coffey, M. 1957. “The Function of the Homeric Simile.” American Journal of Philology 78:113–132.

Cole, S. G. 1993. “Voices from beyond the Grave: Dionysus and the Dead.” In The Masks of Dionysus, ed. T. H. Carpenter and C. A. Faraone, 276–295. London.

Collins, L. 1988. Studies in Characterization in the Iliad. Frankfurt am Main.

Constantinidou, S. 1990. “Evidence for Marriage Ritual in Iliad 3.” In Ἀφιέρωμα στὸν Ἰ. Καμπίτση. Dodone 19:47–59.

Cook, R. 1978. The Tree of Life: Image for the Cosmos. London.

Coulon, V. and van Daele, M., eds. 1928 (repr. 1967). Aristophane. Vol. 3. Paris.

Croon, J. H. 1952. The Herdsman of the Dead. Utrecht.

Crotty, K. 1994. The Poetics of Supplication. Ithaca and London.

Crudden, M. 2001. The Homeric Hymns. Oxford.

Cuny, A. 1936: “Gr. ΠΕΦΥΖΟΤΕΣ.” Revue des études grecques 49:395–398.

Dalley, S. 1991. Myths of Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and Others. Oxford and New York.

Danek, G. 1998. Epos und Zitat: Studien zu den Quellen der Odyssee. Vienna.

———. 2002. “Traditional Referentiality and Homeric Intertextuality.” In Omero tremila anni dopo, ed. F. Montanari and P. Ascheri, 3–19. Rome.

———. 2006. “Die Gliechnisse der Ilias und der Dichter Homer.” In La poésie épique grecque: métamorphoses d’un genre littéraire, ed. F. Montanari and A. Rengakos, 41–71. Entretiens sur l’ antiquité classique 52. Geneva.

Danthine, H. 1937. Le palmier-dattier et les arbres sacrés dans l’ iconographie de l’ Asie occidentale ancienne. Paris.

Daraki, M. 1985. Dionysos et la déesse terre. Paris.

Davies, M., ed. 1988a. Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta (EGF). Göttingen.

———. 1988b. “Stesichorus’ Geryoneis and its Folk-Tale Origins.” Classical Quarterly 38:277–290.

———. 1989. The Greek Epic Cycle. London.

———, ed. 1991. Poetarum Melicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. Oxford.

———. 2002. “The Folk-Tale Origins of the Iliad and the Odyssey.” Wiener Studien 115:5–43.

de Jong, I. J. F. 1987. Narrators and Focalizers: The Presentation of the Story in the Iliad. Amsterdam.

———. 2001. A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey. Cambridge.

———. 2006. “The Homeric Narrator and His Own Kleos.” Mnemosyne 59:188–207.

De Lannoy, L., ed. 1977. Flavii Philostrati Heroicus. Leipzig.

Del Corno, D. 1961. “I papiri dell’ Odissea anteriori al 150 a. Cr.” Rendiconti dell’Istituto Lombardo, Classe di Lettere, Scienze morali e storiche 94:3–54.

Denniston, J. D. 1952. Greek Prose Style. Oxford.

Derderian, K. 2001. Leaving Words to Remember: Greek Mourning and the Advent of Literacy. Leiden.

Detienne, M. 1973. Les maîtres de vérité dans la Grèce archaïque. 2nd ed. Paris.

Devambez, P. and Kauffmann-Samaras, A. 1981. ‘Amazones.’ LIMC I.1:586–653.

Dickie, E. 1996. Greek Forms of Address: From Herodotus to Lucian. Oxford.

Diels, H. and Kranz, W., eds. 1951–1952 (repr. 1966). Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Vols. 1–2. Berlin.

Dierauer, U. 1977. “Tier und Mensch im Denken der Antike.” Studien zur Tierpsychologie, Anthropologie und Ethik. Amsterdam.

Diggle, J. 1970. Euripides: Phaethon. Cambridge.

———, ed. 1981–1994. Euripidis Fabulae. Vols. 1–3. Oxford.

di Martino, M. G. I. 1997. ‘Gerione.’ Enciclopedia Oraziana, 383–384. Rome.

Dindorf, G. 1875–1877. Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem. Vols. 1–4. Oxford.

Doherty, L. E. 1995. Siren Songs: Gender, Audience, and Narrators in the Odyssey. Ann Arbor.

Drachmann, A. B., ed. 1903–1927 (repr. 1966–1969, Amsterdam). Scholia Vetera in Pindari Carmina. Vols. 1–3. Leipzig.

Duckworth, G. E. 1933. Foreshadowing and Suspense in the Epics of Homer, Apollonius and Vergil. Princeton.

Dué, C. 2002. Homeric Variations on a Lament by Briseis. Lanham, MD.

Dumézil, G. 1943. Servius et la Fortune: Essai sur la fonction sociale de louange et de blâme et sur les éléments indo-européens du cens romain. Paris.

———. 1958. L’ idéologie tripartie des Indo-Européens. Brussels.

———. 1968. Mythe et épopée I: L’ idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européens. Paris.

Dümmler, F. 1890. “Hektor.” In Kyrene, ed. F. Studnicza, 194–205. Leipzig.

Ebbott, M. 1999. “The Wrath of Helen: Self-Blame and Nemesis in the Iliad.” In Nine Essays on Homer, ed. M. Carlisle and O. Levaniouk, 3–20. Lanham, MD.

Edwards, A. T. 1985. Achilles in the Odyssey: Ideologies of Heroism in the Homeric Epic. Meisenheim am Glan.

Edwards, M. W. 1966. “Some Features of Homeric Craftsmanship.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 97:115–179.

———. 1969. “On Some ‘Answering’ Expressions in Homer.” Classical Philology 64:81–87.

———. 1970. “Homeric Speech Introductions.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 74:1-36.

———. 1980. “Structure of Homeric Catalogues.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 110:81–105.

———. 1986. “Homer and Oral Tradition: The Formula, Part I.” Oral Tradition 1:171–230.

———. 1987. Homer: Poet of the Iliad. Baltimore.

———. 1988. “Homer and Oral Tradition: The Formula, Part II.” Oral Tradition 3:11–60.

———. 1991. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 5. Cambridge.

Eliade, M. 1963. Patterns in Comparative Religion (trans. R. Sheed). New York.

Elmer, D. 2005. “Helen Epigrammatopoios.” Classical Antiquity 24:1–39.

Else, G. F. 1957. Aristotle’s Poetics: The Argument. Cambridge, MA.

Erbse, H., ed. 1969–1988. Scholia Graeca in Homeri Illiadem. Vols. 1–5. Berlin.

Evans, A. 1901. “Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 21:99–204.

Fairclough, H. R. 1918. Virgil. Aeneid. Vols. 1–2. New York.

Fantuzzi, M. 1988. Ricerche su Apollonio Rodio: Diacronie della dizione epica. Rome.

Faust, M. 1970. “Die künstlerische Verwendung von κύων ‘Hund’ in den homerischen Epen.” Glotta 48:8–31.

Felson-Rubin, N. 1994. Regarding Penelope: From Character to Poetics. Princeton.

Ferrari, F. 1984. “Dizione epica e pianto rituale.” Rivista di filologia ed instruzione classica 112:257–265.

Finkelberg, M. 1998. The Birth of Literary Fiction in Ancient Greece. Oxford.

———. 2002. “The Sources of Iliad 7.” Colby Quarterly 38:151–161.

———. 2003. “Homer as a Foundation Text.” Homer, the Bible, and Beyond, ed. M. Finkelberg and G. G. Stroumsa, 75–96. Leiden.

Finley, J. H. Jr. 1978. Homer’s Odyssey. Cambridge, MA.

Finsler, G. 1924. Homer. 3rd ed. Leipzig.

Foley, J. M. 1985. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research. An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York.

———. 1988. The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology. Bloomington.

———. 1991. Immanent Art: From Structure to Meaning in Traditional Oral Epic. Bloomington.

———. 1993. Traditional Oral Epic: The Odyssey, Beowulf, and the Serbo-Croatian Return Song. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Fontenrose, J. 1959. Python: A Study of a Delphic Myth and its Origins. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Forbes Irving, P. M. C. 1990. Metamorphosis in Greek Myths. Oxford.

Ford, A. 1992. Homer: The Poetry of the Past. Ithaca and London.

Forsdyke, J. 1956. Greece before Homer. New York.

Foster, B. O. 1919. Livy. Vol. 1. New York.

Foucault, M. 1979. “What is an Author?” In Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post-Structuralist Criticism, ed. Josué V. Harari, 141–160. Ithaca.

Fowler, D. 2000. “On the Shoulders of Giants: Intertextuality and Classical Studies.” In Roman Constructions, ed. D. Fowler, 115–137. Oxford.

Fowler, R. L., ed. 2000. Early Greek Mythography (EGM). Oxford.

Frame, D. 1978. The Myth of Return in Early Greek Epic. New Haven and London.

Fränkel, H. 1921. Die homerischen Gleichnisse. Göttingen.

———. 1926. “Der kallimachische und der homerische Hexameter.” Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft zu Göttingen. 197–229.

———. 1962. Dichtung und Philosophie des frühen Griechentums. Munich.

Frazer, J. G. 1989. Ovid: Fasti. Vol. 5. 2nd ed (rev. trans. by G. P. Goold). Cambridge, MA.

Friedrich, P. 1978. The Meaning of Aphrodite. Chicago.

Friedrich, R. 2000. “Homeric Enjambment and Orality.” Hermes 128:1–19.

Frontisi-Ducroux, F. 1986. La cithare d’ Achille: Essai sur la poétique de l’ “Iliade.” Rome.

Gagliardi, P. 2006. “I lamenti di Andromaca nell’ Iliade.” Gaia 10:11–46.

Ghali-Kahil, L. B. 1965. Les enlèvements et le retour d’Hélène dans les textes et les documents figurés. Paris.

Goatly, A. 1997. The Language of Metaphors. London and New York.

Goldhill, S. 1991. The Poet’s Voice: Essays on Poetics and Greek Literature. Cambridge.

Goodman, N. 1968. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis and New York.

Goold, G. P. 1990. Propertius: Elegies. Cambridge, MA.

Gould, J. 1973. “Hiketeia.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 93:74–103.

Gow, A. S. F., ed. 1952 (repr. 1965). Theocritus. Cambridge.

Gow, A. S. F. and Scholfield, A. F., eds. 1953. Nicander. The Poems and Poetical Fragments. Cambridge.

Graver, M. 1995. “Dog-Helen and Homeric Insult.” Classical Antiquity 14:41–61.

Griessmair, E. 1966. Das Motiv der mors immatura in den griechischen metrischen Grabinschriften. Innsbruck.

Griffin, J. 1977. “The Epic Cycle and the Uniqueness of Homer.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 97:39–53.

———. 1986. “Homeric Words and Speakers.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 106:36–57.

Grimal, P. 1986. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology (trans. by A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop). Oxford.

Grube, M. A. 1961. Demetrius on Style. Toronto.

Hainsworth, J. B. 1964. “Structure and Content in Epic Formulae: The Question of the Unique Expression.” Classical Quarterly 14:155–164.

———. 1968. The Flexibility of the Homeric Formula. Oxford.

———. 1988. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Vol. 1. Oxford.

———. 1993. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 3. Cambridge.

Halliwell, S. 1995. Aristotle. Poetics. Cambridge, MA.

Hammond, M. 1987. The Iliad: A New Prose Translation. London.

Hansen, P. A., ed. 1983–1989. Carmina Epigraphica Graeca. Vols. 1–2. Berlin and New York.

Hansen, W. F. 1977. “Odysseus’ Last Journey.” QUCC 24:27–48.

———. 1990. “Odysseus and the Oar: A Folkloric Approach.” In Approaches to Greek Myth, ed. L. Edmunds, 239–272. Baltimore.

Harrison, J. E. 1991. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. 3rd ed. Princeton.

Hartmann, A. 1915. Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der Telegonia des Eugamon von Kyrene I: Die mythographische Überlieferung. Munich.

———. 1917. Untersuchungen über die Sage vom Tod des Odysseus. Munich.

Haynes, D. E. L. 1975. The Portland Vase. 2nd ed. London.

———. 1995. “The Portland Vase: A Reply.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 115: 146–152.

Heath, M. 1989. Unity in Greek Poetics. Oxford.

Henrichs, A. 1987. “Myth Visualized: Dionysus and his Circle in Sixth-Century Attic Vase-Painting.” In Papers on the Amasis Painter and his World, 92–111. Malibu.

———. 1993. “‘He Has a God in Him’: Human and Divine in the Modern Perception of Dionysus.” In Masks of Dionysus, ed. T. H. Carpenter and C. A. Faraone, 13-43. Ithaca and London.

Hercher, R., ed. 1864 (repr. 1971). De Natura Animalium. Leipzig.

Hershkovitz, D. 1998. The Madness of Epic: Reading Insanity from Homer to Statius. Oxford.

Heubeck, A. and Hoekstra, A. 1989. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Vol. 2. Oxford.

Heubeck, A., West, S., and Hainsworth, J. B. 1988. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Vol. 1. Oxford.

Heyden, D. 1995. “Caves.” In The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. M. Eliade, 3:127–133. New York.

Higbie, C. 1990. Measure and Music: Enjambment and Sentence Structure in the Iliad. Oxford.

———. 1995. Heroes’ Names: Homeric Identities. New York and London.

Hind, J. 1995. “The Portland Vase: New Clues towards Old Solutions.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 115:153–155.

Hoekstra, A. 1964. Homeric Modifications of Formulaic Prototypes: Studies in the Development of Greek Epic Diction. Amsterdam.

Holmberg, I. 1995. “The Odyssey and Female Subjectivity.” Helios 22:103–122.

Holoka, J. P. 1973. “Homeric Originality: A Survey.” Classical World 66:257–293.

———. 1979. “Homeric Studies 1971–1977.” Classical World 73:65–150.

———. 1990a. “Homer Studies 1978–1983: Part I.” Classical World 83:393–361.

———. 1990b. “Homer Studies 1978–1983: Part II.” Classical World 84:89–156.

Hölscher, U. 1967. “Die Atridensage in der Odyssee.” Festschrift Alewyn, 1–16. Cologne.

———. 1990. Die Odyssee: Epos zwischen Märchen und Roman. Munich.

Holwerda, D., ed. 1991. Scholia Vetera et Recentiora in Aves, pars 2, fasc. 3. Groningen.

Holzinger, C. von. 1895. Lykophronʼs Alexandra. Leipzig.

Hooker, J. T. 1986. “Helen and the Duration of the Trojan War.” Parola del passato 41:111–113.

Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A. 1996. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford.

Howald, E. 1937. Der Mythos als Dichtung. Zurich.

———. 1964. Der Dichter der Ilias. Erlenbach and Zurich.

Huxley, G. L. 1960. “Homerica II: Eugamon.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 3:23–28.

Immisch, O. 1889. “Ad Cypria carmen.” Rheinisches Museum 44:299–304.

Jacoby, F., ed. 1923–1958 (repr. 1954–1969). Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Vols. 1–3. Leiden.

Jacoubet, H. 1924. “Note sémantique: ἀμολγός.” Revue des études grecques 37:399–402.

Jakobson, R. 1952. “Studies in Comparative Slavic Metrics.” Oxford Slavonic Papers 3:21–66.

———. 1985. Selected Writings. Vol. 7. Berlin.

Jakoby, C., ed. 1995. Dionysii Halicarnasei Antiquitatum Romanarum quae supersunt. Vol. 1. Leipzig.

James, E. O. 1966. The Tree of Life: An Archaeological Study. Leiden.

Jameson, M. 1993. “The Asexuality of Dionysus.” In The Masks of Dionysus, ed. T. H. Carpenter and C. A. Faraone, 44–64. Ithaca and London.

Jamison, S. W. 1991. The Ravenous Hyenas and the Wounded Sun: Myth and Ritual in Ancient India. Ithaca and London.

Janko, R. 1992. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 4. Cambridge.

Jauss, H. R. 1982. Towards an Aesthetic of Reception. Minneapolis.

Jeanmaire, H. 1951. Dionysus: Histoire du culte de Bacchus. Paris.

Jenkins, T. J. 1999. “Homêros ekainopoiêse: Theseus, Aithra and Variation in Homeric Myth-Making.” In Nine Essays on Homer, ed. M. Carlisle and O. Levaniouk, 207–226. Lanham, MD.

Jouan, F. 1966. Euripide et les legendes des Chants Cypriens: Des origines de la guerre de Troie à l’ Iliade. Paris.

———. 1980. “Le Cycle épique: État des questions.” Association Guillaume Budé, Actes du Xe Congrès, 83–104. Paris.

Jourdain-Annequin, C. 1989. Héraclès aux portes du soir: Mythe et Histoire. Paris.

Kahane, A. 1994. The Interpretation of Order: A Study in the Poetics of Homeric Repetition. Oxford.

———. 1997. “Quantifying Epic.” In A New Companion to Homer, ed. I. Morris and B. Powell, 326–342. Leiden.

———. 2005. Diachronic Dialogues: Authority and Continuity in Homer and the Homeric Tradition. Lanham, MD.

Kakridis, J. T. 1944. Ομηρικές έρευνες. Athens.

———. 1949. Homeric Researches. Lund.

———. 1960. Review of Günther Jachmann, “Der homerische Schiffskatalog und die Ilias.” Gnomon 32:393–410.

———. 1971. Homer Revisited. Lund.

———. 1986. Ελληνική Μυθολογία. Vol. 2. Athens.

Kannicht, R. 1969. Euripides Helena. Vol. 2. Heidelberg.

Kassel, R., ed. 1965. Aristotelis de Arte Poetica. Oxford.

Katz, M. 1991. Penelope’s Renown: Meaning and Indeterminacy in the Odyssey. Princeton.

Keller, O. 1913. Die antike Tierwelt. Vol. 2. Leipzig.

Kepinski, C. 1982. L’ arbre stylisé en Asie occidentale au deuxième millénaire avant J.-C. Paris.

Kerényi, C. 1976. Dionysos: Archetypal Image of the Indestructible Life. Trans. R. Mannheim. London.

Kern, O., ed.1963. Orphicorum Fragmenta. 2nd ed. Berlin.

Kirk, G. S. 1966. “Studies in Some Technical Aspects of Homeric Style: (I) The Structure of the Homeric Hexameter; (II) Verse-Structure and Sentence-Structure in Homer.” Yale Classical Studies 20:75–152.

———. 1985. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 1. Cambridge.

———. 1990. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 2. Cambridge.

Klinger, F. 1964. Studien zur griechischen und römischen Literatur. Zurich and Stuttgart.

Kouremenos, Th., Parassoglou, G., and Tsantsanoglou, K., eds. 2006. The Derveni Papyrus. Florence.

Kourou, N. 2001. “The Sacred Tree in Greek Art: Mycenaean versus Near Eastern Traditions.” In La questione delle influenze vicino-orientali sulla religione Greca, ed. S. Ribichini et al., 31–53. Rome.

Krapp, H. 1964. Die akoustische phänomene in der Ilias (dissert. University of Munich). Munich.

Krarup, P. 1948. “Verwendung von Abstrakta in der direkten Rede bei Homer.” Classica et mediaevalia 10:1–17.

Kretschmer, P. 1921. “Literaturbericht für das Jahr 1917.” Glotta 11:108.

———. 1924. “Ἀμολγός.” Glotta 13:166–167.

Kroll, J. 1932. Gott und Hölle. Warburg.

Kullmann, W. 1955. “Die Probe des Achaierheeres in der Ilias.” Museum Helveticum 12:253–273.

———. 1960. Die Quellen der Ilias (Troischer Sagenkreis). Wiesbaden.

———. 1992. Homerische Motive: Beiträge zur Entstehung, Eigenart und Wirkung von Ilias und Odyssee. Ed. R. J. Müller. Stuttgart.

———. 1995. “The Two Nekyiai of the Odyssey and Their Oral Sources.” In Εὐχὴν Ὀδυσσεῖ: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 41–53. Ithaki.

———. 2002. “Procli Cyclicorum enarrationes paragraphis divisae.” In Realität, Imagination und Theorie, ed. A. Rengakos, 156–161. Stuttgart.

Kumaniecki, K. F., ed. 1969. M. Tulli Ciceronis de Oratore. Leipzig.

Kyriakidis, S. 1978. Τὸ δημοτικὸ τραγούδι. Συναγωγὴ μελετῶν. Athens.

Laimou, A. A. 1999–2000. “Ο Τρωικός κύκλος στην προκλασική εικονογραφία της ανατολικής Ελλάδας.” Archaiognosia 10:11–50.

Lange, K. 2002. Euripides und Homer: Untersuchungen zur Homernachwirkung in Elektra, Iphigenie im Tauerland, Helena, Orestes und Kyklops. Stuttgart.

Larson, J. 2001. Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore. Oxford and New York.

Latacz, J. 1977. Kampfparänese, Kampfdarstellung und Kampfwirklichkeit in der Ilias, bei Kallinos und Tyrtaeus. Munich.

Latacz, J., et al. 2000. Homers Ilias: Gesamtkommentar. Vol. 1. Munich and Leipzig.

———. 2003. Homers Ilias: Gesamtkommentar. Vol. 2. Munich and Leipzig.

Lateiner, D. 1995. Sardonic Smile: Nonverbal Behavior in Homeric Epic. Ann Arbor.

Lattimore, R. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago and London.

Lattimore, S. 1976. The Marine Thiasos in Greek Sculpture. Los Angeles.

Lazzeroni, R. 1971. “Su alcuni deverbali greci e sanscriti.” Studi e Saggi di Linguistica 11:22–47.

Lecomte, C. 1998. “L’ Εὐρωπία d’ Eumélos de Corinthe.” In D’ Europe à l’ Europe 1: Le mythe d’ Europe, ed. R. Poignault and O. Wattel-de Croizan, 71–79. Tours.

Lee, D. J. N. 1964. The Similes of the Iliad and the Odyssey Compared. Melbourne.

Levaniouk, O. 1999. “Penelope and the Pênelops.” In Nine Essays on Homer, ed. M. Carlisle and O. Levaniouk, 95–136. Lanham, MD.

Lloyd-Jones, H. and Wilson, N., eds. 1990. Sophoclis Fabulae. Oxford.

Lohmann, D. 1970. Die Komposition der Reden in der Ilias. Berlin.

Loraux, N. 1990. Les mères en deuil. Paris.

Lord, A. B. 1948. “Homer and Huso III: Enjambment in Greek and Southslavic Heroic Song.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 79:113–124.

———. 1960. The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA.

———. 1991. Epic Singers and Oral Tradition. Ithaca.

Lowenstam, S. 1993. The Scepter and the Spear: Studies on Forms of Repetition in the Homeric Poems. Lanham, MD.

Ludwich, A., ed. 1889. Homeri Odyssea. Leipzig.

Lynn-George, M. 1988. Epos: Word, Narrative and the Iliad. Basingstoke, NH.

Lyons, J. 1977. Semantics II. London and New York.

Mackie, H. 1996. Talking Trojan: Speech and Community in the Iliad. London.

Macleod, C. W. 1982. Homer. Iliad. Book 24. Cambridge.

Maehler, H. post Snell, B., eds. 1971–1975 (repr. 1987–1989). Pindari Carmina cum Fragmentis. Leipzig.

Malkin, I. 1998. The Returns of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity. Berkeley.

Manakidou, F. 2002. Στρατηγικές της Οδύσσειας. Συμβολή στο ομηρικό ζήτημα. Thessaloniki.

Mandilaras, G. B. 2003. Isocrates. Opera Omnia. Vols. 1–3. Leipzig.

Marg, W. 1956. “Das erste Lied des Demodokos.” In Navicula Chiloniensis, Festschrift F. Jacoby, 16–29. Leiden.

Markantonatos, A. 2002. Tragic Narrative: A Narratological Study of Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus. Berlin and New York.

Marks, J. 2002. “The Junction between the Kypria and the Iliad.” Phoenix 56:1–24.

———. 2003. “Alternative Odysseus: The Case of Thoas and Odysseus.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 133:209–226.

Maronitis, D. N. 1971. Ἀναζήτηση καὶ νόστος τοῦ Ὀδυσσέα. Ἡ διαλεκτικὴ τῆς Ὀδύσσειας. Athens.

———. 1990. “ Ὁ ὁμιλητικὸς χῶρος καὶ τὰ σήματά του: ἀπὸ τὴν Ἰλιάδα στὴν Ὀδύσσεια.” In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 105–123. Ithaki.

———. 1995. “Προβλήματα τῆς ὁμηρικῆς Ἑλένης.” In Εὐχὴν Ὀδυσσεῖ: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 55–73. Ithaki.

———. 1999. Ὁμηρικὰ Μεγαθέματα: Πόλεμος, Ὁμιλία, Νόστος. Athens.

Marshall, P. K., ed. 1993. Hygini Fabulae. Stuttgart.

Martin, R. P. 1989. The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad. Ithaca and London.

———. 1992. “Hesiod’s Metanastic Poetics.” Ramus 21:11–33.

———. 1997. “Similes and Performance.” In Written Voices, Spoken Signs: Tradition, Performance, and the Epic Text, ed. E. J. Bakker and A. Kahane, 138–166. Cambridge, MA.

———. 2000. “Wrapping Homer Up: Cohesion, Discourse, and Deviation in the Iliad.” In Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations, ed. A. Sharrock and H. Morales, 43–65. Oxford.

———. 2001. “Just Like a Woman: Enigmas of the Lyric Voice.” In Making Silence Speak: Women’s Voices in Greek Literature and Society, ed. A. Lardinois and L. McClure, 55–74. Princeton.

Mascialino, L., ed. 1964. Lycophronis Alexandra. Leipzig.

Matthews, V. J., ed. 1996. Antimachus of Colophon. Leiden.

Mawet, F. 1979. Recherches sur les oppositions fonctionelles dans le vocabulaire homérique de la douleur (autour de πῆμα – ἄλγος). Brussels.

Mayer, K. 1996. “Helen and the Διὸς βουλή.” American Journal of Philology 117:1–15.

Mayer, M. 1883. De Euripidis mythopoeia capita duo. Berlin.

Meillet, A. 1923. Les origines indo-européennes des mètres grecs. Paris.

Merkelbach, R. 1969. Untersuchungen zur Odyssee. Munich.

Merkelbach, R. and West, M. L., eds. 1967. Fragmenta Hesiodea. Oxford.

Meuli, K. 1921. Odyssee und Argonautika. Berlin.

Mikalson, J. 2005. Ancient Greek Religion. Oxford.

Minchin, E. 2001a. “Similes in Homer: Image, Mind’s Eye, and Memory.” In Orality and Literacy in the Greek and Roman World, ed. J. Watson, 25–52. Amsterdam.

———. 2001b. Homer and the Resources of Memory: Some Applications of Cognitive Theory to the Iliad and the Odysssey. Oxford.

Monsacré, H. 1984. Les larmes d’ Achille: Le héros, la femme et la souffrance dans la poésie d’ Homère. Paris.

Montiglio, S. 1993. “La menace du silence pour l’ héros de l’ Iliade.” Métis 8:161–186.

Morrison, J. V. 1992a. Homeric Misdirection: False Predictions in the Iliad. Ann Arbor.

———. 1992b. “Alternatives to the Epic Tradition: Homer’s Challenges in the Iliad.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 122:61–71.

Moulton, C. 1974. “The End of the Odyssey.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 15:153-169.

———. 1977. Similes in the Homeric Poems. Göttingen.

Muellner, L. C. 1976. The Meaning of Homeric εὔχομαι through its Formulas. Innsbruck.

———. 1990. “The Simile of the Cranes and Pygmies: A Study of Homeric Metaphor.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 93:59–101.

———. 1996. The Anger of Achilles: Mênis in Greek Epic. Ithaca and London.

Müller, C., ed. 1855 (repr. 1965). Geographi Graeci Minores. Vol. 1. Paris.

Murnaghan, S. 1987. Disguise and Recognition in the Odyssey. Princeton.

Murray, G. 1934. The Rise of the Greek Epic. 4th ed. Oxford.

Mynors, R. A. B., ed. 1969 (repr. 1977). P. Vergili Maronis Opera. Oxford.

Nagler, M. 1967. “Towards a Generative View of the Homeric Formula.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 98:269–311.

———. 1974. Spontaneity and Tradition: A Study in the Oral Art of Homer. Berkeley.

Nagy, G. 1974. Comparative Studies in Greek and Indic Meter. Cambridge, MA.

———. 1976. “Formula and Meter.” In Oral Literature and the Formula, ed. A. B. Stolz and R. S. Shannon, 239–260. Ann Arbor.

———. 1979. The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Baltimore.

———. 1982. “Hesiod.” In Ancient Authors, ed. T. J. Luce, 43–73. New York.

———. 1990a. Pindar’s Homer: The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore.

———. 1990b. Greek Mythology and Poetics. Ithaca and London.

———. 1996a. Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Cambridge.

———. 1996b. Homeric Questions. Austin.

———. 2000. “Distortion diachronique dans l’art homérique: Quelques précisions.” In Construction du temps dans le monde ancien, ed. C. Darbo-Peschansky, 417–426. Paris.

———. 2003. Homeric Responses. Austin.

———. 2004. Homer’s Text and Language. Urbana and Chicago.

Naiden, F. S. 2006. Ancient Supplication. Oxford.

Nannini, S. 2003. Analogia e polarità in similitudine: Paragoni iliadici e odissiaci a confronto. Amsterdam.

Nardo, D. 1996. ‘Gerione.’ In Enciclopedia Virgiliana, vol. 2. (2nd ed.), 698–699. Rome.

Neumann, G. 1965. Gesten und Gebärden in der griechischen Kunst. Berlin.

Nilsson, M. P. 1967. Geschichte der griechischen Religion. Vol. 1. Munich.

Nimis, S. 1987. Narrative Semiotics in the Epic Tradition: The Simile. Bloomington.

Norden, E. 1915–1923. Die antike Kunstprosa vom VI Jahrhundert v. Christ bis in die Zeit der Renaissance. Vols. 1–2. 3rd ed. Leipzig.

Nyberg, H. S. 1966. Die Religionen der alten Iran (trans. H. H. Schaeder). Osnabrück.

Ogilvie, R. M. 1965. A Commentary on Livy, Books 1–5. Oxford.

———, ed. 1974. Titi Livii. Vol. 1. Oxford.

O’Hara, J. J. 1996. True Names: Vergil and the Alexandrian Tradition of Etymological Wordplay. Ann Arbor.

Olson, S. D. 1997. “Odysseus’ Winnowing-Shovel (Hom. Od. 11.119–37) and the Island of the Cattle of the Sun.” Illinois Classical Studies 22:7–9.

O’Neill, E. 1942. “The Localization of Metrical Word-Types in the Greek Hexameter.” Yale Classical Studies 8:105–178.

O’Nolan, K. 1969. “Homer and Irish Heroic Narrative.” Classical Quarterly 19:1–19.

Orth, E. 1913. ‘Hirsch.’ In RE VIII.2:1936–1950.

Oswald, R. 1993. Das Ende der Odyssee: Studien zur Strukturen epischen Gestaltens, (dissert. Karls-Franzens University of Graz). Graz.

Otto, W. F. 1933. Dionysus und Kultus. Frankfurt am Main.

Page, D. L., ed. 1962 (repr. 1967). Poetae Melici Graeci. Oxford.

———. 1973. “Stesichorus: The Geryoneïs.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 93:138–154.

———, ed. 1974. Supplementum Lyricis Graecis. Oxford.

Pallantza, E. 2005. Der Troische Krieg in der nachhomerischen Literatur bis zum 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Stuttgart.

Papadopoulou-Belmehdi, I. 1994. Le chant de Pénélope: Poétique du tissage féminine dans l’ Odyssée. Paris.

Papageorgius, P. N. 1888. Scholia in Sophoclis tragoedias vetera: e codice Laurentiano denuo collato. Leipzig.

Parks, W. 1990. Verbal Dueling in Heroic Narrative. Princeton.

Parry, M. 1929. “The Distinctive Character of Enjambment in Homeric Verse.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 57:200–220.

———. 1971. The Making of the Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, ed. A. Parry. Oxford.

Paschalis, M. 1981. “Ἡ εἰκόνα τῆς σπηλιᾶς στὶς Ὠδὲς τοῦ Ὁρατίου καὶ ἡ καταγωγή της.” Hellenika 33:30–40.

———. 1997. Vergil’s Aeneid: Semantic Relations and Proper Names. Oxford.

Pattichis, P. L. 1978. Εὐριπίδου Ἑλένη. Athens.

Pavese, C.O. and Boschetti, F. 2003. A Complete Formular Analysis of the Homeric Poems, I–III. Amsterdam.

Pedrick, V. 1982. “Supplication in the Iliad and the Odyssey.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 112:125–140.

Peek, W. 1955. Griechische Vers-Inschriften. Vol. 1. Berlin.

Peradotto, J. 1990. Man in the Middle Voice: Name and Narration in the Odyssey. Princeton.

Pestalozzi, H. 1945. Die Achilleis als Quelle der Ilias. Zurich.

Petegorsky, D. 1982. Context and Evocation: Studies in Early Greek and Sanskrit Poetry, (dissert. University of California at Berkeley). Berkeley.

Petzl, G. 1969. Antike Discussionen über die beiden Nekyiai. Meisenheim am Glan.

Pfeiffer, R., ed. 1949 (repr. 1965). Callimachus. Fragmenta. Vol. 1. Oxford.

Phillips, E. D. 1953. “Odysseus in Italy.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 73:53–67.

Pircher, J. 1979. Das Lob der Frau im vorchristlichen Grabepigram der Griechen. Innsbruck.

Pomeroy, S. 1975. “Andromache: un example méconnu de matriarcat.” Revue des études grecques 88:16–19.

Pope, M. 1985. “A Nonce-word in the Iliad.” Classical Quarterly 35:1–8.

Powell, J. U., ed. 1925. (repr. 1970). Collectanea Alexandrina. Oxford.

Privitera, G. A. 1970. Dionisio in Omero e nella poesia greca arcaica. Rome.

Propp, V. J. 1975. Morphologie des Märchens. 2nd ed. Munich.

Pucci, P. 1979. “The Song of the Sirens.” Arethusa 12:121–132.

———. 1987. Odysseus Polutropos: Intertextual Readings in the Odyssey and in the Iliad. Ithaca.

———. 1993. “Antiphonal Lament between Achilles and Briseis.” Colby Quarterly 29: 258–259.

———. 1997. The Song of the Sirens: Essays on Homer. Lanham, MD.

———. 2003. “Prosopopée d’Hélène.” Le mythe d’Hélène, ed. M. Bronze et al., 89–119. Brussels.

Purves, A. 2006. “Unmarked Space: Odysseus and the Inland Journey.” Arethusa 39:1–20.

Rabel, R. J. 1989. “The Shield of Achilles and the Death of Hector.” Eranos 87:81–90.

Radermacher, L., ed. 1901. Demetrii Phalerei qui dicitur de Elocutione Libellus. Leipzig.

Radt, S., ed. 1985. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. Vol. 3. Göttingen.

———, ed. 1999. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. Vol. 4. Göttingen.

Rahlfs, A., ed. 1965. Septuaginta, id est Vetus Testamentum Graece iuxta LXX. Stuttgart.

Rahn, H. 1953. “Tier und Mensch in der homerischen Auffassung der Wirklichkeit.” Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde 5.6:277–297; 5.7–8:431–480.

———. 1967. “Das Tier in der homerischen Dichtung.” Studium Generale 20:90–115.

Ramersdorfer, H. 1981. Singuläre Iterata der Ilias (A–K). Königstein.

Redfield, J. M. 1975. Nature and Culture in the Iliad. Chicago and London.

Reiner, E. 1938. Die rituelle Totenklage der Griechen. Stuttgart and Berlin.

Reinhardt, K. 1961. Die Ilias und ihr Dichter. Göttingen.

Reitzenstein, R. 1900. “Die Hochzeit des Peleus und der Thetis.” Hermes 35:73–105.

Rengakos, A. 2002. “Zur narrativen Funktion der Telemachie.” In La mythologie et l’ Odyssée: Hommage à Gabriel Germain, ed. A. Hurst and F. Létoublon, 8–98. Geneva.

———. 2004. “Die Argonautika und das ‘kyklische Gedicht’: Bemerkungen zur Erzähltechnik des griechischen Epos.” In Antike Literatur in neuer Deutung, ed. A. Bierl et al., 277–304. Munich and Leipzig.

———. 2006. Το χαμόγελο του Αχιλλέα: Θέματα αφήγησης και ποιητικής στα ομηρικά έπη. Athens.

Reynolds, L. D. and Wilson, N. G. 1991. Scribes and Scholars. Oxford.

Richard, J. C., ed. 1983. Origo Gentis Romanae. Paris.

Richards, I. A. 1936. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford.

Richardson, N. 1993. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 6. Cambridge.

Richter, W. 1968. Die Landwirtschaft im Homerischen Zeitalter. Vol. 2. Göttingen.

Rieu, E. V. 2003. Homer: The Odyssey. Rev. trans. by D. C. H. Rieu. London.

Rix, H. 1976. Historische Grammatik der griechischen: Laut- und Formenlehre. Darmstadt.

Robb, K. 1994. Literacy and Paideia in Ancient Greece. Oxford.

Robert, C. 1920. Die griechische Heldensage. 4th ed. Berlin.

Roos, A. G., ed. 1967. Flavius Arrianus: Alexandri Anabasis. Vols. 1–2. Leipzig.

Rose, V., ed. 1886 (repr. 1967). Aristotelis qui ferebantur Librorum Fragmenta. Leipzig.

Rosén, H. B., ed. 1987, 1997. Herodoti Historiae. Vols. 1–2. Stuttgart.

Rosen, R. 1990. “Poetry and Sailing in Hesiod’s Works and Days.” Classical Antiquity 9:99-113.

Russo, J. A. 1997. “The Formula.” In A New Companion to Homer, ed. I. Morris and B. Powell, 238–260. Leiden.

Russo, J. A., Fernández-Galiano, M. and Heubeck, A. 1992. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Vol. 3. Oxford.

Russo, J. A. and Simon, B. 1968. “Homeric Psychology and the Oral Epic Tradition.” Journal of the History of Ideas 29:483–498.

Rüter, K. 1967. Odysseeinterpretationen: Untersuchungen zum ersten Buch und zur Phaiakis. Göttingen.

Rutherford, I. 2000. “Formulas, Voice, and Death in Ehoie-Poetry, the Hesiodic Gynaikon Katalogos, and the Odysseian Nekyia.” In Matrices of Genre: Authors, Canons, and Society, ed. M. Depew and D. Obbink, 81–96. Cambridge, MA, and London.

Rutherford, R. B., ed. 1992. Homer. Odyssey. Books 19–20. Cambridge.

Rzach, A. 1922. ‘Kyklos.’ RE IX.2:2347–2435.

Sakellariou, M. 1958. La migration grecque en Ionie. Athens.

Schadewaldt, W. 1965. Von Homers Welt und Werk. Aufsätze und Auslegungen zur homerischen Frage. 4th ed. Stuttgart.

———. 1966 (repr. 1987). Iliasstudien. 4th ed. Berlin (repr. Darmstadt).

Schauenburg, K. 1957. “Zu Darstellungen aus der Sage des Admet und des Kadmos.” Gymnasium 64:210–230, plates I–VIII.

Scheer, E., ed. 1908. Lycophronis Alexandra. Vol. 2. Berlin.

Schmidt, E. G. 1996. “Achilles und Helena—ein verhindertes antikes Traumpaar: Ps.-Hesiod, Frauenkatalog Frgm. 204, 87–92 M.-W.” In Worte, Bilder, Töne, Studien zur Antike und Antikerezeption: Bernhard Kytzler zu Ehren, ed. R. Faber and B. Seidensticker, 23–38. Würzburg.

Schmitt, R. 1967. Dichtung und Dichtersprache in indogermanischer Zeit. Wiesbaden.

Schnapp-Gourbeillon, A. 1981. Lions, héros, masques: Les représentations de l’ animal chez Homère. Paris.

Schoeck, G. 1961. Ilias und Aethiopis: Kyklische Motive in homerischer Brechung. Zurich.

Schroeder, L. Von. 1914. Herakles und Indra: Eine Mythenvergleichende Unter-suchung. Vienna.

Schulze, W. 1892. Quaestiones epicae. Gütersloh.

Schweitzer, B. 1922. Herakles. Tübingen.

Schwyzer, E. 1934–1939: Griechische Grammatik. Vol. 1. Munich.

———. 1950. Griechische Grammatik. Vol. 2, ed. A. Debrunner. Munich.

Scodel, R. 2002. Listening to Homer: Tradition, Narrative, and Audience. Ann Arbor.

Scott, W. C. 1974. The Oral Nature of the Homeric Simile. Leiden.

Scully, S. 1990. Homer and the Sacred City. Ithaca and London.

Seaford, R. 1993. “Dionysus as Destroyer of the Household: Homer, Tragedy and the Polis.” In Masks of Dionysus, ed. T. H. Carpenter and C. A. Faraone, 115–146. Ithaca and London.

Segal, C. 1971a. “Andromache’s Anagnorisis: Formulaic Artistry in Iliad 22.437–476.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 75:33–57.

———. 1971b. The Theme of Mutilation of the Corpse. Leiden.

———. 1994. Singers, Heroes, and Gods in the Odyssey. Ithaca and London.

———. 1997. Dionysiac Poetics and Euripides’ Bacchae. Princeton.

Severyns, A. 1928. Le cycle épique dans l’ école d’ Aristarque. Liège.

———. 1938. Le codex 239 de Photius. Vols. 1–2 of Recherches sur la Chrestomathie de Proclos. Paris.

———. 1948. “Curiosités biographiques dans les poèmes d’Homère.” Bulletin de la classe des lettres de l’ Académie royale de Belgique 34:428–441.

———. 1953. La Vita Homeri et les sommaires du Cycle. Étude paléographique et critique. Vol. 3 of Recherches sur la Chrestomathie de Proclos. Paris.

———. 1962. “Ulysse en Élide.” Antiquité Classique 31:15–24.

———, ed. 1963. La Vita Homeri er le sommaires du Cycle. Texte et traduction. Vol. 4 of Recherches sur la Chrestomathie de Proclos. Paris.

Shapiro, H. A. 1995. “Coming of Age in Phaiakia: The Meeting of Odysseus and Nausikaa.” In The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer’s Odyssey, ed. B. Cohen, 155–164. New York and Oxford.

Sharrock, A. 2000. “Intratextuality: Texts, Parts, and (W)holes in Theory.” In Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations, ed. A. Sharrock and H. Morales, 1–39. Oxford.

Sharrock, A. and Morales, H. eds. 2000. Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations. Oxford.

Shipp, G. P. 1972. Studies in the Language of Homer. 2nd ed. Cambridge.

Sicherl, M. 1956. Review of Albert Severyns, “Recherches sur la Chrestomathie de Proclos III: La Vita Homeri et les sommaires du Cycle.” Gnomon 28:210–218.

Sicking, C. M. 1993. Griechische Verslehre. Munich.

Sideras, A. 1971. Aeschylus Homericus: Untersuchungen zu den Homerismen der aischyleischen Sprache. Göttingen.

Sifakis, G. M. 1988. Γιὰ μιὰ ποιητικὴ τοῦ ἑλληνικοῦ δημοτικοῦ τραγουδιοῦ. Herakleion.

Silk, M. S. 1974. Interaction in Poetic Imagery. Cambridge.

———. 1983. “LSJ and the Problem of Poetic Archaism: From Meanings to Iconyms.” Classical Quarterly 33:303–330.

Simon, E. 1983. Festivals of Attica. Madison.

Singor, H. W. 1992. “The Achaean Wall and the Seven Gates of Thebes.” Hermes 120:401–411.

Sistakou, E. 2001. “Παράδοση και νεοτερικότητα στον κατάλογο των Αργοναυτών (Απολλ. Ροδ. Αργ. 1.23–233).” Hellenika 51:231–264.

———. 2004. Η άρνηση του έπους: όψεις του τρωικού μύθου στην ελληνιστική ποίηση. Athens.

Slatkin, L. M. 1986. “The Wrath of Thetis.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 116:1–24.

———. 1991. The Power of Thetis: Allusion and Interpretation in the Iliad. Berkeley and Oxford.

Small, J. P. 1982. Cacus and Marsyas in Etrusco-Roman Legend. Princeton.

Sodano, A. R. 1951. “Il mito di Pentesilea nel 1 libro dei μεθ᾿ Ὅμηρον di Quinto Smirneo.” Annali Fac. Lett. Filos. Napoli 1:55–79.

Solmsen, F., ed. 1970. Hesiodi Opera. Oxford.

Sourvinou-Inwood, C. 1981. “To Die and Enter the House of Hades: Homer, Before and After.” In Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death, ed. J. Whale, 15–39. London.

———. 1986. ‘Charon.’ LIMC III.1:210–225.

———. 1991. ‘Reading’ Greek Culture: Texts and Images, Rituals and Myths. Oxford.

———. 1996. ‘Reading’ Greek Death: To the End of the Classical Period. Oxford.

———. 2005. Hylas, the Nymphs, Dionysos and Others: Myth, Ritual, Ethnicity. Stockholm.

Spencer, D. 2001. “Propertius, Hercules and the Dynamics of Roman Mythic Space in Elegy 4.9.” Arethusa 34:259–284.

Spiro, F., ed. 1903 (repr. 1967). Pausaniae Graeciae Descriptio. Vols. 1–3. Leipzig.

Stanford, W. B. 1963. The Ulysses Theme. 2nd ed. Oxford.

———. 1967. The Sound of Greek: Studies in the Greek Theory and Practice of Euphony. Berkeley.

Stockinger, H. 1959. Die Vorzeichen im homerischen Epos: Ihre Typik und ihre Bedeutung. St. Ottilien.

Stößel, H.-A. 1975. Der letzte Gesang der Odyssee: Eine unitarische Gesamtinterpretation. Erlangen and Nürnberg.

Strassburger, G. 1954. Die kleinen Kämpfer in der Ilias. Frankfurt.

Svoronos, J. 1888. “Ulysse chez les Arcadiens et la Télégonie d’ Eugammon.” Gazette archéologique 13:257–280.

Taplin, O. 1992. Homeric Soundings: The Shaping of the Iliad. Oxford.

Tebben, R. J. 1977. Homer-Konkordanz: A Computer Concordance to the Homeric Hymns. Hildesheim.

———. 1994. Concordantia Homerica, Pars I, Odyssea, I-II. Hildesheim.

———. 1998. Concordantia Homerica, Pars II, Ilias, I-III. Hildesheim.

Thilo, G. and Hagen, H., eds. 1881. Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergili Carmina Commentarii. Vols. 1–3, ed 3. Leipzig.

Thompson, S. 1955. A Motif-Index of Folk-Literature. Vol. 1. Bloomington and London.

Thornton, A. 1984. Homer’s Iliad: Its Composition and the Motif of Supplication. Göttingen.

Tomberg, K.-H. 1968. Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos: Eine literarhistorische und quellenkritische Untersuchung. Bonn.

Torres-Guerra, J. B. 1995. La Tebaida Homerica come fuente de Ilíada y Odissea. Madrid.

Touchefeu-Meynier, O. 1981. ‘Andromache I.’ LIMC I.1:767–774.

Trümpy, H. 1950. Kriegerische Fachausdrücke im griechischen Epos. Bâle.

Tsagalis, C. C. 2004. Epic Grief: Personal Laments in Homer’s Iliad. Berlin and New York.

———. 2006. “Poet and Audience: From Homer to Hesiod.” In La poésie épique grecque: métamorphoses d’ un genre littéraire, ed. F. Montanari and A. Rengakos, 79–130. Entretiens sur l’ antiquité classique 52. Geneva.

———. 2008 (forthcoming). “Μεταμορφώσεις του μύθου: Ο τρωικός κύκλος στους τρεις μεγάλους τραγικούς.” In Αρχαία Ελληνική Τραγωδία: Θεωρία και Πράξη, ed. A. G. Markantonatos and C. C. Tsagalis, Σήματα: Σύγχρονες προσεγγίσεις στην αρχαία ελληνική γραμματεία 1. Athens.

Tsagarakis, O. 1982. “The Teichoskopia Cannot Belong to the Beginning of the Trojan War.” Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 41:61–72.

———. 2000. Studies in Odyssey 11. Stuttgart.

Unger, E. 1926. “Lebensbaum.” In Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. M. Eberts, VII:261–262.

van der Valk, M., ed. 1971–1988. Eustathii Archiepiscopi Thessalonicensis Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem pertinentes. Vols. 1–4. Leiden.

van Groningen, B. A., ed. 1977. Euphorion. Amsterdam.

van Nooten, B. and Holland, G.B., eds. 1994. Rig-Veda: A Metrically Restored Text. Cambridge, MA.

van Raalte, M. 1986. Rhythm and Metre: Towards a Systemic Description of Greek Stichic Verse. Leiden.

van Thiel, H., ed. 1991. Homeri Odyssea. Hildesheim.

———, ed. 1996. Homeri Ilias. Hildesheim.

Veneri, A. 1986. ‘Dionysos, the Literary Sources.’ LIMC III.1:414–420.

Vérilhac, A. – M. 1978. ΠΑΙΔΕΣ ΑΩΡΟΙ. Poésie funéraire. Vols. 1–2. Athens.

Vermeule, E. 1979. Aspects of Greek Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry. London.

Vernant, J.-P. 1965. Mythe et pensée chez les Grecs. Paris.

———. 1996. L’ individu, la mort, l’ amour. Paris.

Vernant, J.-P. and Detienne, M. 1978. Cunning Intelligence in Greek Culture and Society (trans. J. Lloyd). Sussex, NJ.

Vernant, J.-P. and Vidal-Naquet, P. 1986. Mythe et tragédie en Grèce ancienne. Vols. 1–2. Paris.

Vian, F. 1959. Recherches sur les Posthomerica de Quintus de Smyrne. Paris.

———. 1963a. Aux origines de Thèbes: Cadmos et les Spartes. Paris.

———, ed. 1963b. Quintus de Smyrne. La suite d’Homère. Vol. 1. Paris.

———, ed. 1976–1996. Apollonios de Rhodes Argonautiques (trans. É. Delage). Paris.

Visser, E. 1987. Homerische Versifikationstechnik: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion. Frankfurt.

———. 1988. “Formulae or Single Words? Towards a New Theory on Homeric Verse-Making.” Würzburger Jahrbücher für die Altertumwissenschaft n.s. 14:21–37.

———. 1998. ‘Geryoneus.’ In Neue Pauly, Epo-Gro, 4:981–982.

Vitelli, G. and Norsa, M. 1927. Papiri Greci e Latini. Vol. 8. Florence.

Vivante, P. 1982. The Epithets in Homer: A Study in Poetic Values. New Haven.

Vodoklys, E. J. 1992. Blame-Expression in the Epic Tradition. London.

Vogel, F. et al, eds. 1888–1906 (repr. 1964). Diodori Bibliotheca Historica. Vols. 1–4 Leipzig.

Voigt, E.-M., ed. 1971. Sappho et Alcaeus. Fragmenta. Amsterdam.

von Bothmer, D. 1957. Amazons in Greek Art. Oxford.

von der Mühll, P. 1946. Odyssea. Basil.

Voskos, A. I. 1974. Μελέαγρος – Ἀχιλλεὺς καὶ Φοῖνιξ. Συμβολὴ εἰς τὴν ἔρευναν τῆς ἑνότητος τῆς Ἰλιάδος. Nicosia.

Vox, O. 1975. “Epigrammi in Omero.” Belfagor 30:67–70.

Vürtheim, J. 1907. De Eugammonis Cyrenaei Telegonia, post De Aiacis origine, cultu, patria. Leiden.

Waern, I. 1951. GES OSTEA: The Kenning in Pre-Christian Greek Poetry. Uppsala.

Wagner, R., ed. 1894a. Apollodori Bibliotheca. Pediasimi Libellus de duoedecim Herculis Laboribus. Leipzig.

———, ed. 1894b. Mythographi Graeci. Vol. 1. Leipzig.

Wahrmann, P. 1924. “Homer: ἐν νυκτὸς ἀμολγῷ.” Glotta 13:98–101.

Waldner, K. 2000. Geburt und Hochzeit des Kriegers: Geschlechterdifferenz und Initiation in Mythos und Ritual der griechischen Polis. Berlin and New York.

Waterfeld, R., trans. 1988. Herodotus. The Histories. Oxford and New York.

Wathelet, P. 1988. Dictionnaire des Troyens de l’Iliade. Vols. 1–2. Liège.

Watkins, C. 1977. “À propos de ΜΗΝΙΣ.” Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 72:187–209.

———. 1987. “Two Anatolian Forms: Palaic aškumāuwa-, Cuneiform Luvian wa-a-ar-ša.” In Festschrift for Henry Hoenigswald on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, ed. G. Cardona and N. Zide, 399–404. Tübingen.

———. 1995. How to Kill a Dragon. Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. Oxford.

Weber, L. 1925. “Homerica.” Rheinisches Museum 74:337–343.

Weicker, G. 1912. ‘Geryoneus.’ RE VII.1286–1296.

Welcker, F. G. 1882. Der epische Cyclus oder die homerischen Dichter. Vols. 1–2. 2nd ed. Bonn.

Wendel, C., ed. 1914. Scholia in Theocritum Vetera. Leipzig.

———, ed. 1935 (repr. 1974). Scholia in Apollonium Rhodium vetera. Berlin.

Wendel, T. 1929. Gesprächsanrede im griechischen Epos und Drama der Blütezeit. Stuttgart.

West, M. L., ed. 1966. Hesiod. Theogony. Oxford.

———, ed. 1978. Hesiod. Works and Days. Oxford.

———. 1985. The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women. Oxford.

———, ed. 1990. Aeschyli Tragoediae. Stuttgart.

———. 1997. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford.

———, ed. 1998–2000. Homerus. Ilias. Vols. 1-2. Stuttgart.

———. 2001. Studies in the Text and Transmission of the Iliad. Munich and Leipzig.

———. 2002. “‘Eumelus’: A Corinthian Epic Cycle?” Journal of Hellenic Studies 122:109–133.

———. 2003. Homeric Hymns, Homeric Apocrypha, Lives of Homer. Cambridge, MA.

West, S. 1967. The Ptolemaic Papyri of Homer. Cologne and Opladen.

———. 1988. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Vol. 1. Oxford.

———. 1989. “Laertes Revisited.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 35:113–143.

Whitman, C. H. 1958. Homer and the Heroic Tradition. Cambridge, MA.

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. von. 1895. Euripides Herakles. Vols. 1–2. 2nd ed. Berlin.

———. 1920. Die Ilias und Homer. 2nd ed. Berlin.

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. von and Schubart, W. 1907. Griechische Dichterfragmente. Vol. 1. Berlin.

Willcock, M. M. 1964. “Mythological Paradeigma in the Iliad.” Classical Quarterly 14:141–154.

———. 1977. “Ad Hoc Invention in the Iliad.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 81:41–53.

———. 1984. The Iliad of Homer. London.

———. 1993. “Fighting in the Iliad.” In Σπονδές στον Όμηρο: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Odyssey, ed. M. Païzi-Apostolopoulou, 141–147. Ithaki.

———. 1996. “Neoanalysis.” In A New Companion to Homer, ed. I. Morris and B. Powell, 174–189. Leiden.

Wilson, P. 1999. “The aulos in Athens.” In Performance Culture and Athenian Democracy, ed. S. Goldhill and R. Osborne, 58–95. Cambridge.

Winkler, J. 1990. “Penelope’s Cunning and Homer’s.” In The Constraints of Desire, ed. J. Winkler, 129–161. New York.

Wohl, V. J. 1993. “Standing by the Stathmos: The Creation of Sexual Ideology in the Odyssey.” Arethusa 26:19–50.

Worman, N. 2001. “This Voice Which is Not One: Helen’s Verbal Guises in Homeric Epic.” In Making Silence Speak: Women’s Voices in Greek Literature and Society, ed. A. Lardinois and L. McClure, 19–37. Princeton.

———. 2003. The Cast of Character: Style in Greek Literature. Austin.

Wyss, B., ed. 1936. Antimachi Colophonii Reliquiae. Vols. 1–2. Berlin.

Yarden, L. 1972. The Tree of Light: A Study of the Menorah, The Seven-Branched Lampstead. Uppsala.

Zagagi. N. 1985. “Helen of Troy: Encomium and Apology.” Wiener Studien 19:63–88.

Zarker, J. W. 1965–1966. “King Eëtion and Thebe as Symbols in the Iliad.” Classical Journal 61:110–114.

Zumthor, P. 1972. Essai de poétique médiévale. Paris.