Tsagalis, Christos. 2008. The Oral Palimpsest: Exploring Intertextuality in the Homeric Epics. Hellenic Studies Series 29. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hul.ebook:CHS_TsagalisC.The_Oral_Palimpsest.2008.
Chapter 1. Ἀνδρομάχη μαινομένη: The Dionysiac Element in the Iliad
The Myth of Lycurgus
δὴν ἦν, ὅς ῥα θεοῖσιν ἐπουρανίοισιν ἔριζεν·
ὅς ποτε μαινομένοιο Διωνύσοιο τιθήνας
σεῦε κατ᾿ ἠγάθεον Νυσήϊον, αἳ δ᾿ ἅμα πᾶσαι
θύσθλα χαμαὶ κατέχευαν, ὑπ᾿ ἀνδροφόνοιο Λυκούργου
θεινόμεναι βουπλῆγι. Διώνυσος δὲ φοβηθείς
δύσεθ᾿ ἁλὸς κατὰ κῦμα, Θέτις δ᾿ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ
δειδιότα· κρατερὸς γὰρ ἔχε τρόμος ἀνδρὸς ὀμοκλῇ.
τῷ μὲν ἔπειτ᾿ ὀδύσαντο θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζώοντες,
καί μιν τυφλὸν ἔθηκε Κρόνου πάϊς· οὐδ᾿ ἄρ᾿ ἔτι δήν
ἦν, ἐπεὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀπήχθετο πᾶσι θεοῖσιν.
Since even the son of Dryas, Lykourgos the powerful, did not
live long; he who tried to fight with the gods of the bright sky,
who once drove the fosterers of rapturous Dionysos
headlong down the sacred Nyseian hill, and all of them
shed and scattered their wands on the ground, stricken with an ox-goad
by murderous Lykourgos, while Dionysos in terror
dived into the salt surf, and Thetis took him to her bosom,
frightened, with the strong shivers upon him at the man’s blustering.
But the gods who live at their ease were angered with Lykourgos,
and the son of Kronos struck him to blindness, nor did he live long
afterwards, since he was hated by all the immortals.
The above passage constitutes a mythological exemplum or paradeigma.  The speaker Diomedes tells Glaucus the story of Lycurgus, who attacked Dionysus and his nurses so fiercely that the god was only able to escape by plunging into the sea, where he was welcomed and comforted by Thetis.  By exploiting the rich content of this mythological example, Diomedes covertly denotes his intention to avoid the confrontation with the gods on the battlefield, so as not to share Lycurgus’ fate, who lost first his sight and then his life. The tone of the mythological example is rather dissuading, as it is placed within the context of Diomedes’ attempt to find out whether his battlefield opponent, Glaucus, is a god or a man, so as to decide to either avoid battle or launch an attack against him.
The Theban Connection
Mountain-nymphs (νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες)
High-Gated Thebes (Θήβη ὑψίπυλος)
The wild fig tree (ἐρινεός)
The Origins of Dionysus
The Festival of the Agrionia
The Temple of Athena
An Evolutionary Hermeneutical Model