The Ancient Greek Hero in 24 Hours

  Nagy, Gregory. 2013. The Ancient Greek Hero in 24 Hours. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. Abridged edition 2019.



ABV: Beazley, J. 1956. Attic Black-Figure Vase Painters. Oxford.
BA: Nagy, G. 1999. The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Rev. ed. with new intro. Baltimore (available online).
CPG: Leutsch, E. L. von, and F. G. Schneidewin, eds. 1839–1851. Corpus Paroemiographorum Graecorum. Göttingen.
DELG: Chantraine, P. 2009. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque: histoire des mots. Ed. J. Taillardat, O. Masson, and J.-L. Perpillou. With a supplement Chroniques d’étymologie grecque 1–10. Ed. A. Blanc, Ch. de Lamberterie, and J.-L. Perpillou. Paris.
EH: Nagy, G. 2006. “The Epic Hero.” Expanded version of “The Epic Hero.” A Companion to Ancient Epic (ed. J. M. Foley) 71–89. Oxford, 2005 (available online).
FGH: Jacoby, F. 1923–58. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. 3 vols. Berlin.
GM: Nagy, G. 1990b. Greek Mythology and Poetics. Ithaca, NY (available online).
HC: Nagy, G. 2009. Homer the Classic. Hellenic Studies 36. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC (available online).
HPC: Nagy, G. 2010. Homer the Preclassic. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA (available online).
HQ: Nagy, G. 1996b. Homeric Questions. Austin, TX (available online).
HR: Nagy, G. 2003. Homeric Responses. Austin, TX.
HTL: Nagy, G. 2004a. Homer’s Text and Language. Urbana and Chicago.
IG: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1873–. Inscriptiones Graecae. Berlin.
LSJ: Liddell, H. G., R. Scott, and H. S. Jones. 1940. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Oxford.
MW: Fragmenta Hesiodea. Ed. R. Merkelbach and M. West. 1967. Oxford.
PH: Nagy, G. 1990a. Pindar’s Homer: The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore (available online).
PMG: Page, D. L. 1962. Poetae Melici Graeci. Oxford.
PP: Nagy, G. 1996a. Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Cambridge (available online).
PR: Nagy, G. 2002. Plato’s Rhapsody and Homer’s Music: The Poetics of the Panathenaic Festival in Classical Athens. Cambridge, MA and Athens (available online).
SEG: Gieben, J. C., et al. 1923–. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Amsterdam.


Albersmeier, S., ed. 2009. Heroes: Mortals and Myths in Ancient Greece. Baltimore.
Alexiou, M. 1974. The Ritual Lament in Greek Tradition. Cambridge. 2nd ed. 2002, with new introduction by P. Roilos and D. Yatromanolakis. Lanham, MD.
Allen, N. J. 1993. “Arjuna and Odysseus: A Comparative Approach.” South Asia Library Group Newsletter 40:39–43.
Allen, T. W., ed. 1912. Homeri Opera V (Hymns, Cycle, fragments). Oxford.
Antonaccio, C. M. 1995. An Archaeology of Ancestors: Tomb Cult and Hero Cult in Early Greece. Lanham, MD.
Bakker, E. 2005. Pointing at the Past: From Formula to Performance in Homeric Poetics. Hellenic Studies 12. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC.
Baldick, J. 1994. Homer and the Indo-Europeans: Comparing Mythologies. London and New York.
Barrett, W. S., ed. 1964. Euripides: Hippolytus. Oxford.
Beazley, J. 1956. Attic Black-Figure Vase Painters. Oxford.
Beissinger, M., J. Tylus, and S. Wofford, eds. 1999. Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: The Poetics of Community. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Bell, M. 1995. “The Motya Charioteer and Pindar’s Isthmian 2.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 40:1–42.
Benveniste, E. 1954. “Fonctions sémantiques de la reconstruction.” Word 10:251–264. Reprinted in Benveniste 1966:289–307.
Benveniste, E1958. “De la subjectivité dans le langage.” Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique 1958:257–265. Reprinted in Benveniste 1966:258–266.
Benveniste, E.1966. Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris. = Problems in General Linguistics. Trans. M. E. Meek. 1971. Miami. (I recommend especially the formulation about intersubjectivity on the last page, p. 266.)
Benveniste, E. 1966–1974. Problèmes de linguistique générale. 2 vols. Paris.
Berenson Maclean, J. K., and E. B. Aitken, eds. 2001. Flavius Philostratus, Heroikos. Atlanta. Available online at
Bernabé, A ., ed. 1987. Poetae Epici Graeci I. Leipzig.
Bernabé, A ., ed. 2004 / 2005. Poetae epici graeci II. Fascicles 1 / 2. Munich and Leipzig.
Bers, V., D. Elmer, D. Frame, and L. Muellner, eds. 2012. Donum Natalicium Digitaliter Confectum Gregorio Nagy Septuagenario a Discipulis Collegis Familiaribus Oblatum. A Virtual Birthday Gift Presented to Gregory Nagy on Turning Seventy by his Students, Colleagues, and Friends. Available online at
Bershadsky, N. 2011. “A Picnic, a Tomb, and a Crow.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 106:1–45.
Bierl, A. 1991. Dionysos und die griechische Tragödie. Politische und “metatheatralische” Aspekte im Text. Tübingen.
Blackburn, S. H. 1989. “Patterns of Development for Indian Oral Epics.” In Blackburn et al. 1989:15–32.
Blackburn, S. H., P. J. Claus, J. B. Flueckiger, and S. S. Wadley, eds. 1989. Oral Epics in India. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Blackburn, S. H., and J. B. Flueckiger. 1989. Introduction. In Blackburn et al. 1989:1–11.
Boedeker, D. 1988. “Protesilaos and the End of Herodotus’ Histories.” Classical Antiquity 7:30–48.
Boyd, T. W. 1995. “A Poet on the Achaean Wall.” Oral Tradition 10:181–206.
Boym, S. 2001. The Future of Nostalgia. New York.
Bravo, J. J. 2009. “Recovering the Past: The Origins of Greek Heroes and Hero Cults.” In Albersmeier 2009:10–29.
Brelich, A. 1958. Gli eroi greci: Un problema storico-religioso. Rome.
Burgess, J. S. 2001. The Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle. Baltimore.
Burkert, W. 1960. “Das Lied von Ares und Aphrodite. Zum Verhältnis von Odyssee und Ilias.” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 103:130–144. Trans. by G. M. Wright and P. V. Jones in Homer: German Scholarship in Translation 249–262. 1997. Oxford.
Burkert, W. 1966. “Greek Tragedy and Sacrificial Ritual.” Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies 7:87–121.
Burkert, W. 1983. Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth. Trans. P. Bing. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Originally published 1972 as Homo Necans. Berlin.
Burkert, W1984. Die Orientalisierende Epoche in der griechischen Religion und Literatur. Heidelberg.
Burkert, W. 1985. Greek Religion. Trans. J. Raffan. Cambridge, MA. Originally published 1977 as Griechische Religion der archaischen und klassischen Epoche. Stuttgart.
Burkert, W1992. The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Translation of Burkert 1984 by M. Pinder and W. Burkert. Cambridge, MA.
Burkert, W1995. “Lydia between East and West.” In Carter and Morris 1995:139–148.
Calame, C. 1990. Thésée et l’imaginaire athénien. Légende et culte en Grèce antique. Lausanne.
Calame, C. 1998. “Mort héroïque et culte à mystère dans l’Œdipe à Colone de Sophocle.” Ansichten griechischer Rituale: Geburtstags-Symposium für Walter Burkert (ed. F. Graf) 326–356. Stuttgart and Leipzig.
Carter, J. B., and S. P. Morris , eds. 1995. The Ages of Homer: A Tribute to Emily Townsend Vermeule. Austin.
Cassio, A. C. 1999. “Epica greca e scrittura tra VIII e VII a.C.: madrepatria e colonie d’occidente.” Atti del Convegno “Scritture mediterranee tra il IX e il VII secolo a.C.” (ed. G. Bagnasco Gianni and F. Cordano) 67–84. Milan.
Cassio, A. C. 2002. “Early Editions of the Greek Epics and Homeric Textual Criticism in the Sixth and Fifth Centuries BC.” Omero tremila anni dopo (ed. F. Montanari ) 105–136. Rome.
Cerri, G. 2010. “Théorie de l’oralité et analyse stratigraphique du texte homérique: le concept de ‘poème traditionnel’.” Gaia: Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaïque 13:81–106.
Chantraine, P. 2009. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque: histoire des mots (ed. J. Taillardat, O. Masson, and J.-L. Perpillou), with supplement “Chroniques d’étymologie grecque” (ed. A. Blanc, Ch. de Lamberterie, and Jean-Louis Perpillou) 1–10. Paris.
Clay, D. 1978. Introduction. Sophocles: Oedipus the King (trans. S. Berg and D. Clay) 3–20. New York.
Colarusso, J., ed. 2002. Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs. Princeton.
Conway, J. K., K. Keniston, and L. Marx, eds. 1999. Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Humanistic Studies of the Environment. Amherst.
Cook, E. 2004. “Near Eastern Sources for the Palace of Alkinoos.” American Journal of Archaeology 108:43–77.
Crane, G. 1988. Calypso: Backgrounds and Conventions of the Odyssey. Frankfurt.
Cross, F. M. 1973. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Cambridge, MA.
Crowther, N. B. 1991. “The Apobates Reconsidered (Demosthenes lxi 23–9).” Journal of Hellenic Studies 111:174–176.
Currie, B. G. F. 2003. Review of Ekroth 2002. Journal of Hellenic Studies 123:238–241.
Currie, B. G. F. 2005. Pindar and the Cult of Heroes. Oxford.
Dale, A. 2011. “Sapphica.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 106:47–74.
Davidson, O. M. 1980. “Indo-European Dimensions of Herakles in Iliad 19.95–133.” Arethusa 13:197–202.
Davidson, O. M. 1994. Poet and Hero in the Persian Book of Kings. Ithaca, NY. 2nd ed. 2006. Costa Mesa, CA.
Davidson, O. M. 2000. Comparative Literature and Classical Persian Poetics: Seven Essays. Bibliotheca Iranica: Intellectual Traditions Series no. 4. Costa Mesa, CA.
Davidson, O. M. 2001. “Some Iranian Poetic Tropes as Reflected in the ‘Life of Ferdowsi’ Traditions.” Philologica et Linguistica: Festschrift für Helmut Humbach (ed. M. G. Schmidt and W. Bisang) supplement pp. 1–12. Trier.
Davidson, O. M. 2013a. Poet and Hero in the Persian Book of Kings. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA.
Davidson, O. M. 2013b. Comparative Literature and Classical Persian Poetics. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA.
de Jong, J. W. 1985. “The Over-Burdened Earth in India and Greece.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 105:397–400.
Detienne, M. 1972. Les jardins d’Adonis: La mythologie des aromates en Grèce. Paris.
Detienne, M. 1977. The Gardens of Adonis. Trans. J. Lloyd. Sussex. Translation of Detienne 1972.
Deutsche akademie der Wissenschaften. 1873–. Inscriptiones Graecae. Berlin.
Dewald, C. 1997. “Wanton Kings, Pickled Heroes, and Gnomic Founding Fathers: Strategies of Meaning at the End of Herodotus’ Histories.”Classical Closure: Reading the End in Greek and Latin Literature (ed. D. H. Roberts, F. M. Dunn, and D. Fowler) 62–82. Princeton.
Dhuga, U. S. 2011. Choral Identity and the Chorus of Elders in Greek Tragedy. Lanham, MD.
Doumas, C. G. 1999. The Wall Paintings of Thera. 2nd ed. Athens.
Dova, S. 2000. “Who is makartatos in the Odyssey?” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 100:53–65.
Dova, S. 2012. Greek Heroes in and out of Hades. Lanham, MD.
Ducrot, O., and Tz. Todorov. 1979. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Sciences of Language. Trans. C. Porter. Baltimore.
Dué, C. 2000. “Poetry and the Dēmos: State Regulation of a Civic Possession.” Stoa Consortium, ed. R. Scaife.
Dué, C. 2001. “Achilles’ Golden Amphora in Aeschines’ Against Timarchus and the Afterlife of Oral Tradition.” Classical Philology 96:33–47.
Dué, C. 2002. Homeric Variations on a Lament by Briseis. Lanham, MD. Available at
Dué, C. 2006. The Captive Woman’s Lament in Greek Tragedy. Austin. Available at
Dumézil, G. 1968 [1986]. Mythe et épopée. Vol. 1, L’idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européennes. Paris. 2nd ed. 1986.
Dumézil, G. 1969. Heur et malheur du guerrier: Aspects mythiques de la fonction guerrière ches les Indo-Européens. Paris.
Dumézil, G. 1970. The Destiny of the Warrior. Translation of Dumézil 1969 by A. Hiltebeitel. Chicago.
Dumézil, G. 1971 [1986]. Mythe et épopée. Vol. 2, Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi. Paris.
Dumézil, G. 1973a [1978, 1981]. Mythe et épopée. Vol 3, Histoires romaines. Paris.
Dumézil, G. 1973b. The Destiny of a King. Trans. A. Hiltebeitel. = Dumézil 1971, part III.
Dumézil, G. 1975. Fêtes romaines d’été et d’automne, suivi de dix questions romaines. Paris.
Dumézil, G. 1980. Camillus: A Study of Indo-European Religion as Roman History. Trans. A. Aranowicz and J. Bryson. Edited with introduction by U. Strutynski. Berkeley and Los Angeles. = Dumézil 1973a, part II, plus Appendices 1 and 2 of Dumézil 1973b and Appendices 3 and 4 of Dumézil 1975.
Dumézil, G. 1983. The Stakes of the Warrior. Trans. D. Weeks. Edited and with introduction by J. Puhvel. Berkeley and Los Angeles. = Dumézil 1971, part I.
Dumézil, G. 1986. The Plight of the Sorcerer. Trans. D. Weeks et al. Edited by J. Puhvel and D. Weeks. Introduction by D. Weeks. = Dumézil 1971, part II.
Dumézil, G. 1995. Mythe et épopée I, II, III. New combined and corrected edition of the original three volumes, with original paginations retained in the inner margins. Preface by J. Grisward, pp. 7–30. Paris.
Easterling, P. E. 2006. “The Death of Oedipus and What Happened Next.” Dionysalexandros: Essays on Aeschylus and his Fellow Tragedians in Honour of Alexander F. Garvie (ed. D. Cairns and V. Liapis) 133–150. Swansea.
Easterling, P. E. 2012. “Getting to grips with the oracles: Oedipus at Colonus.” In Bers et al. 2012. Available online at
Ebbott, M. 2000. “The List of the War Dead in Aeschylus’ Persians.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 100:83–96.
Ebbott, M2003. Imagining Illegitimacy in Classical Greek Literature. Lanham, MD. Available at
Edmunds, L. 1981. “The Cults and the Legend of Oedipus.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85:221–238.
Edmunds, L. 1996. Theatrical Space and Historical Place in Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus. Lanham, MD.
Edmunds, S. T. 1990. Homeric Nēpios. New York.
Ekroth, G. 2002. The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Periods. Liège.
Ekroth, G. 2009. “The Cult of Heroes.” In Albersmeier 2009:121–143.
Elmer, D. F. 2008. “Epikoinos: The Ball Game Episkyros and Iliad 12.421–3.” Classical Philology 103:414–422.
Elmer, D. F. 2010. “‘It’s Not Me, It’s You, Socrates’: The Problem of the Charismatic Teacher in Plato’s Symposium.” Martin Weiner Lecture, Brandeis University, November 10, 2010.
Elmer, D. F. 2013. The Poetics of Consent. Collective Decision Making and the Iliad. Baltimore.
Ferrari, G. 1997. “Figures in the Text: Metaphors and Riddles in the Agamemnon.” Classical Philology 92:1–45.
Ferrari, G.2000.“The Ilioupersis in Athens.”Harvard Studies in Classical Philology100:119–150.
Fitzgerald, R. 1941. Sophocles, The Oedipus at Colonus: An English Version. New York.
Flower, M. A., and J. Marincola, eds. 2002. Herodotus: Histories Book IX. Cambridge.
Flueckiger, J. B. 1989. “Caste and Regional Variants in an Oral Epic Tradition.” In Blackburn et al. 1989:33–54.
Flueckiger, J. B. 1996. Gender and Genre in the Folklore of Middle India. Ithaca, NY.
Foley, J. M. 1990. Traditional Oral Epic. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Foley, J. M. 1991. Immanent Art. Bloomington.
Foley, J. M. 1995. The Singer of Tales in Performance. Bloomington.
Foley, J. M. 1996. “Guslar and Aoidos: Traditional Register in South Slavic and Homeric Epic.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 126:11–41.
Foley, J. M., ed. 1998. Teaching Oral Traditions. New York.
Foley, J. M. 1999. Homer’s Traditional Art. University Park, PA.
Foley, J. M. 2002. How to Read an Oral Poem. Champaign, IL.
Foster, B. R ., ed., trans., and introd. 2001. The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York.
Fraenkel, E., ed. 1950. Aeschylus: Agamemnon. I–III. Oxford.
Frame, D. 1978. The Myth of Return in Early Greek Epic. New Haven. Available at
Frame, D. 2009. Hippota Nestor. Hellenic Studies 34. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Available at
Freedman, D. G. 1998. “Sokrates: The Athenian Oracle of Plato’s Imagination.” PhD diss., Harvard University.
Friis Johansen, K. 1967. The Iliad in Early Greek Art. Copenhagen.
Gieben, J.C., et al. 1923–. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Amsterdam.
Gill, D. 1974. “Trapezomata: A Neglected Aspect of Greek Sacrifice.” Harvard Theological Review 67:117–137.
Goldhill, S. 1984. Language, Sexuality, Narrative: The Oresteia. Cambridge.
Gresseth, G. K. 1975. “The Gilgamesh Epic and Homer.” Classical Journal 70:1–18.
Gresseth, G. K. 1979. “The Odyssey and the Nalopākhyāna.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 109:63–85.
Griffiths, A. 1985. “Patroklos the Ram.” Bulletin of the Institute for Classical Studies 32:49–50.
Griffiths, A. 1989. “Patroklos the Ram (Again).” Bulletin of the Institute for Classical Studies 36:139.
Grossardt, P. 2006. Einführung, Übersetzung und Kommentar zum <> von Flavius Philostrat I/II. Schweizerische Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft 33. Basel.
Hadzisteliou-Price, T. 1973. “Hero-Cult and Homer.” Historia 22:129–144.
Hallett, J. P. 1970. “‘Over Troubled Waters’: The Meaning of the Title Pontifex.” Transactions of the American Philological Association101:219–227.
Hansen, W. F. 1977. “Odysseus’ Last Journey.” Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 24:27–48.
Harlan, L. 2003. The Goddesses’ Henchmen: Gender in Indian Hero Worship. New York.
Hatto, A. T., ed. 1980. Traditions of Heroic and Epic Poetry. London.
Häusle, H. 1979. Einfache und frühe Formen des griechischen Epigramms. Commentationes Aenipontanae 25. Innsbruck.
Hendel, R. S. 1987a. The Epic of the Patriarch: The Jacob Cycle and the Narrative Traditions of Canaan and Israel. Harvard Semitic Monographs 42. Atlanta.
Hendel, R. S. 1987b. “Of Demigods and the Deluge: Toward an Interpretation of Genesis 6:1–4.” Journal of Biblical Literature 106:13–26.
Henrichs, A. 1978. “Greek Maenadism from Olympias to Messalina.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 82: 121–169.
Henrichs, A. 1981. “Human Sacrifice in Greek Religion: Three Case Studies.” Le sacrifice dans l’antiquité (ed. J. Rudhardt and O. Reverdin) 195–235. Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique 27. Vandoevres–Genève.
Henrichs, A. 1983. “The ‘Sobriety’ of Oedipus: Sophocles OC 100 Misunderstood.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 87:87–100.
Henrichs, A. 1984. “The Eumenides and Wineless Libations in the Derveni Papyrus.” Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia (Napoli, 19–26 maggio 1983) II 255–268. Naples.
Henrichs, A. 1994. “Anonymity and Polarity: Unknown Gods and Nameless Altars at the Areopagos.” Illinois Classical Studies (Studies in Honor of Miroslav Marcovich) 19:27–58.
Henrichs, A. 1996. “Dancing in Athens, Dancing in Delos: Some Patterns of Choral Projection in Euripides.” Philologus 140:48–62.
Henry, P. L. 1982. “Furor Heroicus.” Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 39:235–242.
Hiltebeitel, A. 1976. The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahābhārata. 2nd printing 1990. Albany.
Irigoin, J. 1952. Histoire du texte de Pindare. Paris.
Jacoby, F. 1923–1958. Die Fragmente der griechishen Historiker. 3 vols. Berlin.
Jacopin, P.-Y. 1988. “Anthropological Dialectics: Yukuna Ritual as Defensive Strategy.” Schweizerische Amerikanisten-Gesellschaft, Bulletin52:35–46.
Jakobson, R. 1931. “Über die phonologischen Sprachbünde.” Jakobson 1971:137–143.
Jakobson, R. 1949. “On the Theory of Phonological Affinities Between Languages.” In Jakobson 1990:202–213. For the date of the original article, see 1990:544 under RJ 1949b.
Jakobson, R. 1952. “Studies in Comparative Slavic Metrics.” Oxford Slavonic Papers 3:21–66. Reprinted in Jakobson 1966:414–463. The Hague.
Jakobson, R. 1957. Shifters, Verbal Categories, and the Russian Verb. Cambrdige, MA. Reprinted in Jakobson 1971:130–147.
Jakobson, R. 1966. Selected Writings IV. The Hague.
Jakobson, R. 1971. Selected Writings I. 2nd ed. Berlin, New York, and Amsterdam.
Jakobson, R. 1990. On Language. Edited by L. R. Waugh and M. Monville-Burston. Cambridge, MA.
Jameson, M. H., D. R. Jordon, and R. D. Kotansky. 1993. A lex sacra from Selinous. Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies Monographs 11. Durham.
Janko, R. 1982. Homer, Hesiod and the Hymns: Diachronic Development in Epic Diction. Cambridge.
Janko, R. 1992. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 4, Books 13–16. Cambridge.
Janko, R. 1998. “The Homeric Poems as Oral Dictated Texts.” Classical Quarterly N.S. 48:1–13.
Jasanoff, J., H. C. Melchert, and L. Oliver, eds. 1998. Mír Curad: Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins. Innsbruck.
Jeffreys, E., and M. Jeffreys. 1986. “The Oral Background of Byzantine Popular Poetry.” Oral Tradition 1:504–547.
Jones, B. 2010. “Relative Chronology within (an) Oral Tradition.” Classical Journal 105:289–318.
Kearns, E. 1989. The Heroes of Attica. London.
Kierkegaard, S. 1843 [1983]. Fear and Trembling. Repetition. Translated, with introduction and notes, by H. V. Hong and E. H. Hong . Princeton.
Kinsella, T.  1969, trans. The Táin. Dublin.
Kirk, G. S. 1962. The Songs of Homer. Cambridge.
Knox, B. M. W. 1952. “The Lion in the House.” Classical Philology 47:17–25. Reprinted in Knox 1979:27–38.
Knox, B. M. W. 1954. “Why is Oedipus called Tyrannos?” Classical Journal 50:97–102. Reprinted in Knox 1979:87–95.
Knox, B. M. W. 1979. Word and Action: Essays on the Ancient Theater. Baltimore.
Koenen, L. 1994. “Cyclic Destruction in Hesiod and the Catalogue of Women.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 124:1–34.
Koller, H. 1957. “Hypokrisis und Hypokrites.” Museum Helveticum 14:100–107.
Kowalzig, B. 2007. Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece. Oxford.
Kümmel, H. M. 1967. Ersatzrituale für den hethitischen König. Wiesbaden.
Kurke, L. 1991. The Traffic in Praise: Pindar and the Poetics of Social Economy. Ithaca, NY.
Lamberterie, C. de. 1997. “Milman Parry et Antoine Meillet.” In Létoublon 1997:9–22. Translated as “Milman Parry and Antoine Meillet” in Loraux, Nagy, and Slatkin 2001:409–421.
Lang, C., ed. 1881. Cornuti theologiae Graecae compendium. Leipzig.
Larson, J. 1995. Greek Heroine Cults. Madison, WI.
Larson, J. 2009. “The Singularity of Herakles.” In Albersmeier 2009:32–38.
Leach, E. R. 1982. Critical Introduction. M. I. Steblin-Kamenskij, Myth (trans. M. P. Coote) 1–20. Ann Arbor.
Lessing, G. E. 1766. Laokoon, oder Über die Grenzen der Mahlerey und Poesie. Translated by E. A. McCormick as Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry. 1962. Revised ed. 1984. Baltimore.
Létoublon, F., ed. 1997. Hommage à Milman Parry: le style formulaire de l’épopée et la théorie de l’oralité poétique. Amsterdam.
Leutsch, E. L. von, and F. G. Schneidewin, eds. 1839–1851. Corpus Paroemiographorum Graecorum. Göttingen.
Levaniouk, O. 2011. Eve of the Festival: Making Myth in Odyssey 19. Hellenic Studies 46. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Available at
Levaniouk, O. 2012. “Sky-Blue Flower: Songs of the Bride in Modern Russia and Ancient Greece.” In Bers et al. 2012.
Liddell, H. G., R. Scott, and H. S. Jones. 1940. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Oxford.
Lincoln, B. 1975. “Homeric Lyssa: Wolfish Rage.” Indogermanische Forschungen 80:98–105.
Lincoln, B1981. “On the Imagery of Paradise.” Indogermanische Forschungen 85:151–164.
Lloyd, A. B. 1976. Herodotus, Book II, vol. 2. Leiden.
Lloyd-Jones, H. 1983. The Justice of Zeus. 2nd ed. Berkeley.
Loraux, N. 1982. “Donc Socrate est immortel.” Le Temps de la Réflexion 3:19–46. Recast as “Therefore Socrates is Immortal” in Loraux 1995:145–167.
Loraux, N. 1995. The Experiences of Tiresias: The Feminine and the Greek Man. Trans. P. Wissing. Princeton.
Loraux, N., G. Nagy, and L. Slatkin, eds. 2001. Antiquities: Postwar French Thought III. Edited by R. Naddaff. New York.
Lord, A. B. 1960. The Singer of Tales. Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature 24. Cambridge, MA. See also Lord 2000.
Lord, A. B. 1991. Epic Singers and Oral Tradition. Ithaca, NY.
Lord, A. B. 1995. The Singer Resumes the Tale. Edited by M. L. Lord. Ithaca, NY.
Lord, A. B. 2000. 2nd ed. of Lord 1960. Edited, with new Introduction (vii–xxix) by S. Mitchell and G. Nagy. Cambridge, MA.
Lowenstam, S. 1981. The Death of Patroklos: A Study in Typology. Beiträge zur Klassischen Philologie 133. Königstein/Ts.
Lowenstam, S. 1997. “Talking Vases: The Relationship between the Homeric Poems and Archaic Representations of Epic Myth.”Transactions of the American Philological Association 127:21–76.
Lowenstam, S. 2008. As Witnessed by Images: The Trojan War Tradition in Greek and Etruscan Art. Baltimore.
Martin, R. P. 1989. The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad. Ithaca, NY. Available at
Martin, R. P. 1993. “Telemachus and the Last Hero Song.” Colby Quarterly 29:222–240.
Martin, R. P. 2000. “Synchronic Aspects of Homeric Performance: The Evidence of the Hymn to Apollo.” Una nueva visión de la cultura griega antigua hacia el fin del milenio (ed. A. M. González de Tobia) 403–432. La Plata.
Mason, H. J. 2004. “Sappho’s Apples.” Metamorphic Reflections: Essays Presented to Ben Hijmans at his 75th Birthday (ed. M. Zimmerman and R. Van Der Paardt) 243–253. Leuven.
Mayer, K. 1996. “Helen and the Dios Boulē.” American Journal of Philology 117:1–15.
McGrath, K. 2004. The Sanskrit Hero: Karna in Epic Mahābhārata. Leiden.
McLuhan, M. 1964. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York.
Meillet, A. 1921–1936. Linguistique historique et linguistique générale. I–II. Paris.
Meillet, A. 1925. La méthode comparative en linguistique historique. Paris.
Mellink, M. J., ed. 1986. Troy and the Trojan War. Bryn Mawr.
Mellink, M. J. 1995. “Homer, Lycia, and Lukka.” In Carter and Morris 1995:33–43.
Merkelbach, R., and M. L. West, eds. 1967. Fragmenta Hesiodea. Oxford.
Michelini, A. 1978. “῞ΥΒΡΙΣ and Plants.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 82:85–44.
Miles, S., ed. 1986. Simone Weil: An Anthology. London. [“Human Personality” (“La Personne et le sacré”), pp. 69–98, tr. Richard Rees 1962; “Void and Compensaton” (from Gravity and Grace (La Pesanteur et Ia grâce), pp. 216–220, tr. Emma Craufurd 1952.]
Mitchell, S. 1991. Heroic Sagas and Ballads. Ithaca, NY.
Mitchell, S., and G. Nagy, eds. 2000. Introduction. Lord 2000:vii–xxix.
Moon, W. G., ed. 1983. Ancient Greek Art and Iconography. Madison, WI.
Morris, S. P. 1989. “A Tale of Two Cities: The Miniature Frescoes from Thera and the Origins of Greek Poetry.” American Journal of Archaeology 93:511–535. [[My reference to this article was accidentally omitted in the list of References in the current printed version of H24H.]]
Muellner, L. 1996. The Anger of Achilles: Mēnis in Greek Epic. Ithaca, NY.
Nagy, G. 1972. Introduction, Parts I and II, and Conclusions. Greek: A Survey of Recent Work (F. W. Householder and G. Nagy) 15–72. Janua Linguarum Series Practica 211. The Hague.
Nagy, G. 1974. Comparative Studies in Greek and Indic Meter. Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature 33. Cambridge, MA.
Nagy, G. 1979. The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Revised ed. with new introduction 1999. Baltimore.Available online at
Nagy, G. 1982. “Translation Beyond Betrayal: Some Observations on the Bacchae.” Harvard Advocate 115(4):84–86.
Nagy, G. 1983a. “Sēma and Noēsis: Some Illustrations.” Arethusa 16:35–55. Recast as ch. 8 of GM = Nagy 1990b.
Nagy, G. 1983b. “On the Death of Sarpedon.” Approaches to Homer (ed. C. A. Rubino and C. W. Shelmerdine) 189–217. Recast as ch. 5 ofGM = Nagy 1990b.
Nagy, G. 1985. “Theognis and Megara: A Poet’s Vision of His City.” Theognis of Megara: Poetry and the Polis (ed. T. J. Figueira and G. Nagy ) 22–81. Baltimore. Available online at Corrigenda: at §77, “Pausanias 1.5.3 should be “Pausanias 1.5.4.”
Nagy, G. 1987. “The Sign of Protesilaos.” ΜΗΤΙΣ. Revue d’anthropologie du monde grec ancien 2:207–213.
Nagy, G. 1990a. Pindar’s Homer: The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore. Available online at
Nagy, G. 1990b. Greek Mythology and Poetics. Ithaca NY. Revised paperback edition 1992. Available online at Corrigenda. On p. 203 between “same line)” and “specified,” insert “of the marital bed; similarly, she ‘recognizes’ (ἀναγνούσῃ xix 250) as sēmata (same line) the clothes…” (in the present printed version, the reference to the marital bed as sēmata at Odyssey xxiii 206 is distorted by a mistaken omission of the wording that needs to be restored here: by haplography, the mention of the marital bed is omitted, and this omission distorts the point being made about the clothes and brooch of Odysseus as sēmata in their own right at xix 250). On p. 214n42, “Pausanias 9.44.44” should be 8.44.4.
Nagy, G. 1992. Introduction to Homer. The Iliad (trans. R. Fitzgerald) v–xxi. Everyman’s Library no. 60. New York.
Nagy, G. 1993. “Alcaeus in Sacred Space.” Tradizione e innovazione nella cultura greca da Omero all’ età ellenistica: Scritti in onore di Bruno Gentili (ed. R. Pretagostini) 221–225. Rome.
Nagy, G. 1994. “The Name of Apollo: Etymology and Essence.” In Solomon 1994:3–7. Rewritten as ch. 7 in Nagy 2004a.
Nagy, G. 1994/1995 “Transformations of Choral Lyric Traditions in the Context of Athenian State Theater.” Arion 3:41–55. Available online at
Nagy, G. 1996a. Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Cambridge. Available online at
Nagy, G. 1996b. Homeric Questions. Austin. Available online at
Nagy, G. 1998. “The Library of Pergamon as a Classical Model.” Pergamon: Citadel of the Gods (ed. H. Koester) 185–232. Harvard Theological Studies 46. Philadelphia. 2nd ed. in Nagy 2012a, available online at
Nagy, G. 1999. See Nagy 1979.
Nagy, G. 1999a. “Epic as Genre.” In Beissinger, Tylus, and Wofford 1999:21–32.
Nagy, G. 1999b. “As the World Runs Out of Breath: Metaphorical Perspectives on the Heavens and the Atmosphere in the Ancient World.” In Conway, Keniston, Marx 1999:37–50.
Nagy, G. 1999c. Review of Vielle 1996. Classical Review 49:279–280.
Nagy, G. 1999d. Preface to 2nd ed. of Nagy 1979.
Nagy, G. 2000. “‘Dream of a Shade’: Refractions of Epic Vision in Pindar’s Pythian 8 and Aeschylus’ Seven against Thebes.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 100:97–118. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2001a. “The Sign of the Hero: A Prologue.” In Berenson Maclean and Aitken 2001:xv–xxxv. The page numbering will be given here in arabic numerals. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2001b. “Reading Bakhtin Reading the Classics: An Epic Fate for Conveyors of the Heroic Past.” Bakhtin and the Classics (ed. R. B. Branham) 71–96. Evanston IL. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2001c. “Homère comme modèle classique pour la bibliothèque antique: les métaphores du corpus et du cosmos.” Des AlexandriesI. Du livre au texte (ed. L. Giard and Ch. Jacob) 149–161. Paris.
Nagy, G. 2001d. “Éléments orphiques chez Homère.” Kernos 14:1–9.
Nagy, G. 2002a. Plato’s Rhapsody and Homer’s Music: The Poetics of the Panathenaic Festival in Classical Athens. Cambridge MA / Athens. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2002b. “Can Myth Be Saved?” Myth: A New Symposium (ed. G. Schrempp and W. Hansen) 240–248. Bloomington.
Nagy, G. 2003. Homeric Responses. Austin. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2004a. Homer’s Text and Language. Urbana and Chicago, IL. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2004b. “L’aède épique en auteur: la tradition des Vies d’Homère.” Identités d’auteur dans l’Antiquité et la tradition européenne(ed. C. Calame and R. Chartier) 41–67. Grenoble.
Nagy, G. 2005a. “The Epic Hero.” A Companion to Ancient Epic (ed. J. M. Foley) 71–89. Oxford.
Nagy, G. 2005b. “An Apobatic Moment for Achilles as Athlete at the Festival of the Panathenaia.” Imeros 5:311–317.
Nagy, G. 2006. “The Epic Hero.” Expanded version of Nagy 2005a. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2007a. “Lyric and Greek Myth” The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology (ed. R. D. Woodard) 19–51. Cambridge. Updated version available online at
Nagy, G. 2007b. “Homer and Greek Myth.” The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology (ed. R. D. Woodard) 52–82. Cambridge. Updated version available online at
Nagy, G. 2007c. “Did Sappho and Alcaeus Ever Meet?” Literatur und Religion: Wege zu einer mythisch–rituellen Poetik bei den Griechen I (ed. A. Bierl, R. Lämmle, and K. Wesselmann) 211–269. MythosEikonPoiesis 1.1. Berlin and New York.
Nagy, G. 2008a. Greek: An Updating of a Survey of Recent Work. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Updating of Nagy 1972 using original page numbering. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2008b. “Convergences and Divergences between God and Hero in the Mnesiepes Inscription of Paros.” Archilochus and his Age II (ed. D. Katsonopoulou, I. Petropoulos, S. Katsarou) 259–265. Athens.
Nagy, G. 2008|2009. Homer the Classic. Online | Printed version. | Hellenic Studies 36. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC.
Nagy, G. 2009. “Did Sappho and Alcaeus Ever Meet?” 2nd ed. of Nagy 2007c. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2009a. “Hesiod and the Ancient Biographical Traditions.” The Brill Companion to Hesiod (ed. F. Montanari, A. Rengakos, and Ch. Tsagalis) 271–311. Leiden. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2009b. “An Apobatic Moment for Achilles as Athlete at the Festival of the Panathenaia.” Expanded version of Nagy 2005b. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2009c. “The Fragmentary Muse and the Poetics of Refraction in Sappho, Sophocles, Offenbach.” Theater des Fragments: Performative Strategien im Theater zwischen Antike und Postmoderne (ed. A. Bierl, G. Siegmund, Ch. Meneghetti, C. Schuster) 69–102. Bielefeld. Expanded version available online at
Nagy, G. 2009|2010. Homer the Preclassic. Online | Printed version. | Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Nagy, G. 2010a. “The ‘New Sappho’ Reconsidered in the Light of the Athenian Reception of Sappho.” The New Sappho on Old Age: Textual and Philosophical Issues (ed. E. Greene and M. Skinner) 176–199. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2010b. “Ancient Greek Elegy.” The Oxford Handbook of the Elegy (ed. K. Weisman) 13–45. Oxford. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2010c. “The Meaning of homoios (ὁμοῖος) in Verse 27 of the Hesiodic Theogony and Elsewhere.”Allusion, Authority, and Truth: Critical Perspectives on Greek Poetic and Rhetorical Praxis (ed. P. Mitsis and Ch. Tsagalis) 153–167. Trends in Classics vol. 7. Berlin and New York.
Nagy, G. 2010d. Review of West 2007. Classical Review 60:333–338. Expanded version available online at
Nagy, G. 2010e. “The Subjectivity of Fear as Reflected in Ancient Greek Wording.” Dialogues 5:29–45. Expanded version in Nagy 2012a. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2011a. “Asopos and His Multiple Daughters: Traces of Preclassical Epic in the Aeginetan Odes of Pindar.” Aegina: Contexts for Choral Lyric Poetry. Myth, History, and Identity in the Fifth Century BC (ed. D. Fearn) 41–78. Oxford.
Nagy, G. 2011b. “A Second Look at the Poetics of Reenactment in Ode 13 of Bacchylides.” Archaic and Classical Choral Song: Performance, Politics and Dissemination (ed. L. Athanassaki and E. L. Bowie) 173–206. Berlin.
Nagy, G. 2011c. “Diachrony and the Case of Aesop.” Classics@. Issue 9: Defense Mechanisms in Interdisciplinary Approaches to Classical Studies and Beyond. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2011d. “The Earliest Phases in the Reception of the Homeric Hymns.” The Homeric Hymns: Interpretative Essays (ed. A. Faulkner) 280–333. Oxford. Available online at
Nagy, G. 2012b. “Signs of Hero Cult in Homeric Poetry.” Homeric Contexts: Neoanalysis and the Interpretation of Homeric Poetry (ed. F. Montanari, A. Rengakos, and Ch. Tsagalis) 27–71. Trends in Classics Supplementary Volume 12. Berlin and Boston.
Nagy, J. F. 1985. The Wisdom of the Outlaw: The Boyhood Deeds of Finn in Gaelic Narrative Tradition. Los Angeles and Berkeley.
Nagy, J. F. 1986. “Orality in Medieval Irish Literature: An Overview.” Oral Tradition 1:272–301.
Nagy, J. F. 1997a. “How the Táin Was Lost.” Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 49/50:603–609.
Nagy, J. F. 1997b. Conversing with Angels and Ancients: Literary Myths of Medieval Ireland. Ithaca, NY.
Nietzsche, F. 1885. See G. Colli and M. Montinari, eds., Nietzsche. Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe VII-3, p. 412, 41[4]. The quotation is from Nachlass, August-September, 1885.
Nilsson, M. P. 1906. Griechische Feste. Leipzig.
Obbink, D., ed. 1996. Philodemus: On Piety. Part 1. Oxford.
Ó Cathasaigh, T. 1977. The Heroic Biography of Cormac mac Airt. Dublin.
Okpewho, I. 1979. The Epic in Africa: Toward a Poetics of the Oral Performance. New York.
O’Rahilly, C., ed. and trans. 1967. Táin Bó Cúalnge from the Book of Leinster. Dublin.
O’Rahilly, C., ed. and trans. 1976. Táin Bó Cúailnge: Recension I. Dublin.
Pache, C. O. 2004. Baby and Child Heroes in Ancient Greece. Urbana and Chicago, IL.
Pache, C. O. 2009. “The Hero beyond Himself: Heroic Death in Ancient Greek Poetry and Art.” In Albesmeier 2009:88–107.
Page, D. L. 1962. Poetae Melici Graeci. Oxford.
Parpola, S. 1970–1983. Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal. I–II. Neukirchen-Vluyn.
Parry, A., ed. 1971. The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Oxford.
Patton, K. C. 2009. Religion of the Gods: Ritual, Paradox, and Reflexivity. Oxford.
Patton, K. C., ed., forthcoming. Gemini and the Sacred: Twins and Twinship in Religion and Mythology. London.
Payne, M. 1991. “Alexander the Great: Myth, the Polis, and Afterward.” Myth and the Polis (ed. D. C. Pozzi and J. M. Wickersham) 164-181. Ithaca, NY.
Pelliccia, H. 2010–2011. “Unlocking Aeneid 6.460: Plautus’ Amphitryon, Euripides’ Protesilaus and the referents of Callimachus’ Coma.” Classical Journal 106:149–221.
Pfister, F. 1909–1912. Der Reliquienkult im Altertum. I–II. Giessen.
Pickard-Cambridge, A. W. 1989. Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Updated edition by D. M. Lewis and J. Gould. Oxford.
Pinney, G. F. 1983. “Achilles Lord of Scythia.” In Moon 1983:127–146.
Power, T. 2010. The Culture of Kitharōidia. Hellenic Studies 15. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Available online at
Propp, V. Ja. 1975. “The Russian Folk Lyric.” Down Along the River Volga: An Anthology of Russian Folk Lyrics, With and Introductory Essay by V. Ja. Propp (trans. from Propp 1961 by R. Reeder ) 1–73. Philadelphia.
Puhvel, J. 1987. Comparative Mythology. Baltimore.
Radloff, W. 1885. Proben der Volksliteratur der nördlichen türkischen Stämme V: Der Dialekt der Kara-Kirgisen. St. Petersburg.
Radloff, W. 1990. Preface of Radloff 1885. Trans. G. B. Sherman and A. B. Davis. Oral Tradition 5:73–90.
Rees, A., and B. Rees. 1961. Celtic Heritage: Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales. London.
Rees, D. S. 1986. “The Mediterranean Shell Purple-Dye Industry.” American Journal of Archaeology 90:183.
Reichl, K. 1992. Turkic Oral Epic Poetry: Traditions, Forms, Poetic Structure. New York.
Reichl, K2000. Singing the Past: Turkic and Medieval Poetry. Ithaca, NY.
Reynolds, D. F. 1995. Heroic Poets, Poetic Heroes: An Ethnography of Performance in an Arabic Oral Epic Tradition. Ithaca, NY.
Rodin, B. P. 2009. Pindaric Epinikion and the Evolution of Poetic Genres in Archaic Greece. PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.
Roller, L. E. 1981a. “Funeral Games in Greek Art.” American Journal of Archaeology 85:107–119.
Roller, L. E. 1981b. “Funeral Games for Historical Persons.” Stadion 7:1–17.
Rousseau, P. 1992. “Fragments d’un commentaire antique du récit de la course des chars dans le XXIIIe Chant de l’Iliade.” Philologus136:158–180.
Rousseau, P1996. Dios d’ eteleieto boulē: Destin des héros et dessein de Zeus dans l’intrigue de l’Iliade. Doctorat d’Etat thesis, Université Charles de Gaulle – Lille III.
Rusten, J. 1983. “Geitōn Hērōs: Pindar’s Prayer to Heracles (N. 7.86–101) and Popular Religion.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology87:289–297.
Rutherford, I. 2000. “Theoria and Darśan: Pilgrimage and Vision in Greece and India.” Classical Quarterly 50:133–146.
Salapata, G. 2011. “The Heroic Cult of Agamemnon.” Electra, North America, 1, oct. 2011. Available online at
Saussure, F. de. 1916. Cours de linguistique générale. Critical ed. 1972 by T. de Mauro . Paris.
Saussure, F. de. 1966. Course in General Linguistics. Trans. W. Baskin. New York.
Sax, W. S. 1999. “Worshipping Epic Villains: A Kaurava Cult in the Central Himalayas.” In Beissinger, Tylus, and Wofford 1999:169–186
Sax, W. S. 2002. Dancing the Self: Personhood and Performance in the Pāndav Līlā of Garhwal. New York.
Scanlon, T. F. 2004. “Homer, The Olympics, and the Heroic Ethos.” The Olympic Games in Antiquity: ‘Bring Forth Rain and bear Fruit’ (ed. M. Kaila et al.) 61–91. Athens.
Schmitt, R. 1967. Dichtung und Dichtersprache in indogermanischer Zeit. Wiesbaden.
Schultz, P. 2007. “The Iconography of the Athenian apobates Race: Origins, Meanings, Transformations.” The Panathenaic Games (eds. A. Choremi and O. Palagia) 59–72. Oxford.
Schwartz, M. 2003. “Encryptions in the Gathas: Zarathushtra’s Variations on the Theme of Bliss.” Religious Themes and Texts of Pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia: Studies in Honour of Gherardo Gnoli on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday (ed. C. Cereti, M. Maggi, and E. Provasi) 375–390. Wiesbaden.
Scodel, R. 1982. “The Achaean Wall and the Myth of Destruction.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 86:33–50.
Seaford, R. 1994. Reciprocity and Ritual: Homer and Tragedy in the Developing City-State. Oxford.
Seaford, R. 1996. Euripides Bacchae (with Introduction, Translation, Commentary). Warminster.
Shapiro, H. A. 1984. “Herakles and Kyknos.” American Journal of Archaeology 88:523–529.
Shear, J. L. 2001. “Polis and Panathenaia: The History and Development of Athena’s Festival.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania.
Sinos, D. S. 1980. Achilles, Patroklos, and the Meaning of Philos. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 29. Innsbruck.
Sjoestedt, M.-L. 1940. Dieux et héros des Celtes. Paris.
Skjærvø, P. O. 1998a. “Eastern Iranian Epic Traditions I: Siyāvash and Kunāla.” In Jasanoff, Melchert, and Oliver 1998:645–658.
Skjærvø, P. O. 1998b. “Eastern Iranian Epic Traditions II: Rostam and Bhīṣma.” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae51:159–170.
Slatkin, L. 1986. “Oedipus at Colonus: Exile and Integration.” Greek Tragedy and Political Theory (ed. J. P. Euben) 210–221. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Slatkin, L1987. “Genre and Generation in the Odyssey.” METIS: Revue d’anthropologie du monde grec ancien 2:259–268.
Slatkin, L1991. The Power of Thetis: Allusion and Interpretation in the Iliad. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Slatkin, L. 2011. The Power of Thetis and Selected Essays. Hellenic Studies 16. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC. Available online at
Smith, J. D. 1980. “Old Indian: The Two Sanskrit Epics.” In Hatto 1980:48–78.
Smith, J. D. 1989. “Scapegoats of the Gods: The Ideology of the Indian Epics.” In Blackburn et al. 1989:176–194.
Smith, J. D. 1990. “Worlds Apart: Orality, Literacy, and the Rajasthani FolkMahābhārata.” Oral Tradition 5:3–19.
Solomon, J., ed. 1994. Apollo: Origins and Influences. Tucson.
Stähler, K. P. 1967. Grab und Psyche des Patroklos: Ein schwarzfiguriges Vasenbild. Münster.
Szegedy-Maszák, A. 1981. The Nomoi of Theophrastus. New York.
Tambiah, S. J. 1985. Culture, Thought, and Social Action. Cambridge, MA.
Tarenzi, V. 2005. “Patroclo ΘΕΡΑΠΩΝ.” Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 80:25–38.
Theiler, W. 1962. “Ilias und Odyssee in der Verflechtung ihres Entstehens.” Museum Helveticum 19:1–27.
Tischler, J. 1993. Hethitisches Etymologisches Glossar, Teil III, Lieferung 9. Pp. 207–212 deal with the words tarpašša- and tarpalli- / tarpanalli-.
Tsagalis, C. 2004. Epic Grief: Personal Laments in Homer’s Iliad. Berlin.
Tzifopoulos, Y. 2010. Paradise Earned: The Bacchic-Orphic Gold Lamellae of Crete. Hellenic Studies 23. Cambridge, MA and Washington, DC.
Van Brock, N. 1959. “Substitution rituelle.” Revue Hittite et Asianique 65:117–146.
Van Brock, N. 1961. Recherches sur le vocabulaire médical du grec ancien. Paris.
Van Nortwick, T. 1992. Somewhere I Have Never Traveled: The Second Self and the Hero’s Journey in Ancient Epic. New York.
Vendryes, J. 1937. “Antoine Meillet.” Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 38:1–42.
Vermeule, E. 1965. “The Vengeance of Achilles: The Dragging of Hektor at Troy.” Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 63:34–52.
Vermeule, E1986. “Priam’s Castle Blazing.” Troy and the Trojan War (ed. M. Mellink) 77–92. Bryn Mawr.
Vernant, J.-P. 1985. Mythe et pensée chez les Grecs. Études de psychologie historique. 2nd revised and augmented ed. Paris. The English-language version, Myth and Thought among the Greeks (London 1983), is based on the 1st ed. (Paris 1965) and needs to be updated. See pp. 86–106 of the 2nd ed. (1985), especially pp. 100–106, on the Hesiodic myth of the five generations of humankind.
Vielle, Ch. 1996. Le mytho-cycle héroïque dans l’aire indo-européenne: Correspondances et transformations helléno-aryennes. Louvain.
Wace, A. 1948. “Weaving or Embroidery?” American Journal of Archaeology 52:51–55.
Walsh, T. R. 2005. Fighting Words and Feuding Words: Anger and the Homeric Poems. Lanham, MD.
Watkins, C. 1967. “Latin sōns.” Studies in Historical Linguistics in honor of George Sherman Lane (ed. W. W. Arndt et al.) 186–194. Chapel Hill, NC. Reprinted in Watkins, C. 1994. Selected Writings II (ed. L. Oliver) 405–413. Innsbruck.
Watkins, C. 1995. How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. New York and Oxford.
Weil, S. See Miles ed. 1986.
West, M. L. 1999. “The Invention of Homer.” Classical Quarterly 49:364–382.
West, M. L. 2000. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford.
West, M. L. 2007. Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford.
White, S. A. 2000. “Socrates at Colonus: A Hero for the Academy.” Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy (ed. N. D. Smith and P. Woodruff) 151–175. Oxford.
Whitman, C. H. 1958. Homer and the Heroic Tradition. Cambridge, MA.
Yatromanolakis, D. 2003. “Ritual Poetics in Archaic Lesbos: Contextualizing Genre in Sappho.” Towards a Ritual Poetics (by D.Yatromanolakis and P. Roilos) 43–59. Athens.
Zeitlin, F. 1965. “The Motif of the Corrupted Sacrifice in Aeschylus’ Oresteia.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 96:463–508.