The Ritual Lament in Greek Tradition

Bibliographical Supplement

In this supplement we offer a selection of studies on Greek lamentation and its diverse ritual and socio-religious contexts that appeared after the first edition of The Ritual Lament in Greek Tradition in 1974. We have also included studies on images, beliefs, rituals, and ideologies relating to death during the different periods of the tradition of Greek lament. This is not an exhaustive bibliography on all aspects of the ritual and the genres of Greek lament, but rather a representative sampling of the vast literature on the subject. It has been designed to give access to important, thorough, provocative, or sometimes just interesting and up-to-date, books and articles. Further bibliography on related issues can be found in the studies that are marked with an asterisk. Works that are simply relevant to problems of authorship, date, or attribution of lines of texts that are examined in this book have been generally omitted. Recent commentaries on particular plays or authors (such as A. F. Garvie’s Aeschylus. Choephori [1986], and J. D. Reed’s Bion of Smyrna [1997]) have also not been cited. The reader should be aware that subject-headings may overlap in certain cases. As for the colossal literature on ritual lament in other traditions and cultures, which offers comparative perspectives for the study of the Greek material, we have limited ourselves to citing a selection of studies that we have found most suggestive or thought-provoking. The cut-off date for this supplement is 1998. [1]

Dimitrios Yatromanolakis Panagiotis Roilos

From the Homeric epics to late antiquity

Ahlberg, G. Prothesis and Ekphora in Greek Geometric Art, 2 vols., Göteborg 1971 (supplemented by T. Rombos, The Iconography of Attic Late Geometric II Pottery, Jonsered 1988, pp. 77–91)

Arnaoutoglou, I. Ancient Greek Laws: A Sourcebook, London/New York 1998 (142–44: Ioulis and Gambreion laws, and section on “Relevant texts”)

Arnould, D. Le rire et les larmes dans la litérature grecque d’ Homère à Platon, Paris 1990

*Bergemann, J. Demos und Thanatos: Untersuchungen zum Wertsystem der Polis im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs des 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. und zur Funktion der gleichzeitigen Grabbauten, Munich 1997

Birchall, J. “The Lament as a Rhetorical Feature in the Greek Novel”, in Groningen Colloquia on the Novel, vol. VII, eds. H. Hofmann and M. Zimmermann, Groningen 1996, 1–17

Bremmer, J. The Early Greek Concept of the Soul, Princeton 1983

Brooklyn, J. P. Black-Figure Funerary Plaques, Diss. University of Iowa 1981

Brugnone, A. “Le leggi suntuarie di Siracusa”, La parola del passato 47 (1992), 5–24

Burkert, W. Homo Necans: Interpretationen altgriechischer Opferriten und Mythen, Berlin/New York 1972 (Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, transl. P. Bing, Berkeley/Los Angeles 1983)

Cannatà Fera, M. Pindarus. Threnorum Fragmenta, Rome 1991

Caronte. Un obolo per l’aldilà, special issue La Parola del Passato 50 (1995)

*Cavanagh, W. and C. Mee “Mourning Before and After the Dark Age”, in Klados. Essays in honour of J. N. Coldstream, ed. C. Morris, [BICS Suppl. 63] London 1995, 45–61

Ciani, M. G. “La consolatio nei tragici greci. Elementi di un topos”, Bollettino dell’ Istituto di Filologia Greca dell’ Università di Padova 2 (1975), 89–129

Clairmont, C. W. Patrios Nomos: Public Burial in Athens during the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C., 2 vols. [BAR International Series 161] Oxford 1983

——— Classical Attic Tombstones, Kilchberg 1993 (8 vols.)

Cordano, F. “‘Morte e pianto rituale’ nell’Atene del VI sec. A.C.”, Archeologia Classica 32 (1980), 186–97

Day, J. W. “Rituals in Stone: Early Greek Grave Epigrams and Monuments”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 109 (1989), 16–28

De Schutter, X. “Rituel funéraire et coût des obsèques en Grèce à l’époque classique”, Kernos 2 (1989), 53–66

Easterling, P. E. “Men’s κλέος and Women’s γόος: Female Voices in the Iliad”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 9 (1991), 145–51

Ecker, U. Grabmal und Epigramm: Studien zur frühgriechischen Sepulkraldichtung, [Palingenesia 29] Stuttgart 1990

Edwards, M. W. “The Conventions of a Homeric Funeral”, in Studies in Honour of T.B.L. Webster I, eds. J. H. Betts, J. T. Hooker and J. R. Green, Bristol 1986, 84–92

Ferrari, F. “Dizione epica e pianto rituale (Iliade 22, 405–36)”, Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 112 (1984), 257–65

Foley, H. P. “The Politics of Tragic Lamentation”, in Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Papers from the Greek Drama Conference (Nottingham, 18–20 July 1990), eds. A. H. Sommerstein et al., Bari 1993, 101–43

Garland, R. “Geras thanonton: An Investigation into the Claims of the Homeric Dead”, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 29 (1982), 69–80

*——— The Greek Way of Death, London 1985

——— “The Well-Ordered Corpse: An Investigation into the Motives behind Greek Funerary Legislation”, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 36 (1989), 1–15

Garrison, E. P. Groaning Tears: Ethical and Dramatic Aspects of Suicide in Greek Tragedy, [Mnemosyne Suppl. 147] Leiden/New York/Köln 1995

Giannakis, G. Κ. “Μερικὲς μεταφορικὲς ἐκφράσεις καὶ εὐφημισμοὶ γιὰ τὸ θάνατο στὴν ἀρχαία Ἐλληνικὴ καὶ τὴν Ἰνδοευρωπαϊκή”, Δωδώνη 25 (1996), 139–58

——— “The ‘Fate-as-Spinner’ Motif. A Study on the Poetic and Metaphorical Language of Ancient Greek and Indo-European (Part I)”, Indogermanische Forschungen 103 (1998), 1–27

Gnoli, J. and J.-P. Vernant (eds.) La mort, les morts dans les sociétés anciennes, Cambridge/Paris 1982: essays by N. Loraux (“Mourir devant Troie, tomber pour Athènes”, 27–43), L. Kahn, et al.

Griffin, J. Homer on Life and Death, Oxford 1980

Hansen, P. A. Carmina Epigraphica Graeca saeculorum VIII–V a. Chr.n., Berlin/New York 1983 / Carmina Epigraphica Graeca saeculi IV a. Chr.n., Berlin/New York 1989

Havelock, C. M. “Mourners on Greek Vases: Remarks on the Social History of Women”, in S. L. Hyatt (ed.), The Greek Vase, Latham, New York 1981, 103–18 (reprinted in N. Broude and M. D. Garrard (eds.), Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, New York 1982, 44–61)

*Herfort-Koch, M. Tod, Totenfürsorge und Jenseitsvorstellungen in der griechischen Antike: Eine Bibliographie, Munich 1992 (see esp. section on Grabinschriften)

Hoffmann, H. “Death and False Noses”, in id., Sotades. Symbols of Immortality on Greek Vases, Oxford 1997, 103–6 (with references to earlier articles by the same author)

Humphreys, S C. and H. King (eds.) Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death, London 1982

*Humphreys, S. C. The Family, Women and Death: Comparative Studies, Ann Arbor 21993

Immerwahr, S. “Death and the Tanagra Larnakes”, in J. B. Carter and S. P. Morris (eds.), The Ages of Homer. A Tribute to E. T. Vermeule, Austin 1995, 109–21

Jouan, F. “Les rites funéraires dans les Suppliantes d’Euripide”, Kernos 10 (1997), 215–32

Kokolakis, Μ. Μ. “‘Ἱμερόεις γόος’. Ἀπὸ τὸν Ὅμερο στὴν τραγικὴ κάθαρση.” in Φίλία Ἔπη εἰς Γεώργιον Ε. Μυλωνᾶν, Athens 1987, 215–44

Kurtz, D. C. “Vases for the Dead, an Attic Selection, 750–400 B.C.”, in H. A. G. Brijder (ed.), Ancient Greek and Related Pottery. Proceedings of the International Vase Symposium in Amsterdam 12–15 April 1984, Amsterdam 1985, 314–28

Lambin, G. La chanson grecque dans l’antiquité, Paris 1992 (pp. 105–128)

La parola, l’immagine, la tomba. Atti del Colloquio Internazionale, Capri 20–23 aprile 1988, in Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli (sez. di archeologia e storia antica) 10 (1988): papers by S. Georgoudi, J. Svenbro, G. Hoffmann, et al.

Lausberg, M. Das Einzeldistichon: Studien zum antiken Epigramm, Munich 1982 (esp. 102–170)

Lewis, D. M. “Bowie on Elegy: A Footnote”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 107, 188 [on E. L. Bowie, “Early Greek Elegy, Symposium and Public Festival”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 106 (1986), 22–27]

Lohmann, D. Die Andromache-Szenen in der llias, Hildesheim 1988

Lonsdale, S. H. Dance and Ritual Play in Greek Religion, Baltimore/London 1993 (ch. 8: “The dance of death: Privileges of the dead”)

Loraux, N. Façons tragiques de tuer une femme, Paris 1985 (Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman, transl. A. Forster, Cambridge, Mass. 1987)

*——— L’invention d’Athènes: Histoire de l’oraison funèbre dans la ‘cité classique’, Paris 1981 (The Invention of Athens, transl. A. Sheridan, Cambridge, Mass. 1986)

——— Les mères en deuil, Paris 1990 (Mothers in Mourning: with the essay Of Amnesty and Its Opposite, transl. C. Pache, Ithaca/London 1998)

Mawet, F. “Épigrammes, thrènes et dithyrambes. Les lamentations funèbres de l’épopée”, in J. Bingen et al. (eds.), Le monde grec: Pensée, littérature, histoire, documents. Hommages à Claire Préaux, Brussels 1975, 33–44

Monsacré, H. Les larmes d’Achille: Les héros, la femme et la suffrance dans la poésie d’Homère, Paris 1984

Morris, I. “The Gortyn Code and Greek Kinship”, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 31 (1990), 233–54

——— Death-Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge 1992 (with references to earlier studies by the same author)

——— “Law, Culture and Funerary Art in Athens, 600–300 B.C.”, Hephaistos 11/12 (1992/93), 35–50

Nagy, G. The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, Baltimore 1979, revised ed. 1999 (ch. 6: “Lamentation and the Hero”)

Osborne, R. G. “Death Revisited, Death Revised: The Death of the Artist in Archaic and Classical Greece”, Art History 11 (1988), 1–16

Padel, R. In and Out of the Mind: Greek Images of the Tragic Self, Princeton (esp. ch. 4)

Palmisciano, R. “Lamento funebre, culto delle Muse e attese escatologiche in Saffo (con una verifica su Archiloco)”, Seminari Romani I, 2 (1998), 183–205 (see also R. Palmisciano, Il lamento funebre in Grecia e la sua codifcazione letteraria, doct. diss. Naples 1996, forthcoming)

Parker, R. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion, Oxford 1983/1996 (ch. 2: “Birth and Death”)

Petersmann, G. “Die monologische Totenklage in der Iliad”, Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 116(1973), 3–16

Probonas, I. K. “Ὁμηικὰ καὶ Νέα Ἑλληνικά. Ι. μύρομαι καὶ μυρολογῶ”, Μελέτες γιὰ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴ Γλῶσσα. Πρακτικὰ τῆς 10ης ἐτήσιας συνάντησης τοῦ Τομέα Γλωσσολογίας Θεσσαλονίκης, 9-11Μαΐου 1989, Thessaloniki 1990, 17–23

Pucci, P. “Antiphonal Lament between Achilles and Briseis”, in Essays on Homeric Epic, eds. H. M. and J. Roisman, Colby Quarterly 29.3 (1993), 258-272

*Rehm, R. Marriage to Death: The Conflation of Wedding and Funeral Rituals in Greek Tragedy, Princeton 1994

Richer, N. “Aspects des funérailles à Sparte”, Cahiers du Centre G. Glatz 5 (1994), 51–96

Scalera McClintock, G. Il pensiero dell’invisible nella Grecia arcaica, Naples 1989

Seaford, R. “The Tragic Wedding”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 107 (1987), 106–30

*——— Reciprocity and Ritual: Homer and Tragedy in the developing City-State, Oxford 1994

Segal, C. Euripides and the Poetics of Sorrow: Art, Gender, and Commemoration in Alcestis, Hippolytus, and Hecuba, Durham/London 1993 (esp. ch. 4 on the Alcestis)

——— “The Female Voice and its Contradictions: From Homer to Tragedy”, in R eligio Graeco-Romana. Festschrift für Walter Pötscher, eds. J. Dalfen et al. [Grazer Beiträge, Supplementband V] Graz-Horn 1993, 57–75

——— “Female Mourning and Dionysiac Lament in Euripides’ Bacchae”, in A. Bierl and P. von Möllendorff (eds.), Orchestra: Drama, Mythos, Bühne. Festschrift für H. Flashar, Stuttgart/Leipzig 1994, 12–18

——— “The Gorgon and the Nightingale: The Voice of Female Lament and Pindar’s Twelfth Pythian Ode”, in L. C. Dunn and N. A. Jones (eds.), Embodied Voices: Representing Female Vocality in Western Culture, Cambridge 1994, 17–34

——— Sophocles’ Tragic World: Divinity, Nature, and Society, Cambridge, Mass. 1995 (ch. 5 on the Antigone)

——— “Catharsis, Audience, and Closure in Greek Tragedy”, in M. S. Silk (ed.), Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond, Oxford 1996, 149–72

Sevinç, N. “A New Sarcophagus of Polyxena from the Salvage Excavations at Gümüsçay”, Studia Troica 6 (1996), 251–64 [images of mourners]; see also N. Sevinç et al., “The Dedetepe Tumulus”, Studia Troica 8 (1998), 305–27

Shapiro, H. A. “The Iconography of Mourning in Athenian Art”, American Journal of Archaeology 95 (1991), 629–56

Simms, R. R. “Mourning and Community at the Athenian Adonia”, Classical Journal 93 (1998), 121–41

Small, D. B. “Monuments, Laws, and Analysis: Combining Archaeology and Text in Ancient Athens”, in id. (ed.), Methods in the Mediterranean: Historical and archaeological views on texts and archaeology, Leiden/New York/Köln 1995 [Mnemosyne Suppl. 135], 143–74

*Soffel, J. Die Regeln Menanders für die Leichenrede, Meisenheim am Glan 1974

Sourvinou-Inwood, C. “To Die and Enter the House of Hades: Homer, Before and After”, in J. Whaley (ed.), Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death, London 1981, 15–39

*——— “A Trauma in Flux: Death in the 8th Century and After”, in R. Hägg (ed.), The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century B.C.: Tradition and Innovation. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, 1–5 June, 1981, Stockholm 1983, 33–49

——— “Images grecques de la mort: représentations, imaginaire, histoire”, Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli (sez. di archeologia e storia antica) 9 (1987), 145–58

*——— ‘Reading’ Greek Death: to the end of the classical period, Oxford 1995

Spatafora, G. “Esigenza fisiologica e funzione terapeutica del lamento nei poemi omerici. (Studio sul significato di κλαίω, γοάω, στένω, οἰμώζω/κωκύω, ὀδύρομαι)” L’Antiquité Classique 66 (1997), 1–2

Stears, K. “Dead Women’s Society. Constructing Female Gender in Classical Athenian Funerary Sculpture”, in N. Spencer (ed.), Time, Tradition and S ociety in Greek Archaeology: Bridging the ‘Great Divide’, London/New York 1995, 109–31

——— “Death Becomes Her. Gender and Athenian Death Ritual”, in S. Blundell and M. Williamson (eds.), The Sacred and Feminine in Ancient Greece, London/New York 1998, 113–27

*Toher, M. “Greek Funerary Legislation and the Two Spartan Funerals”, in Georgica. Greek Studies in honour of G. Cawkwell, eds. M. A. Flower and M. Toher, [BICS Suppl. 58] London 1991, 159–75

Vérilhac, A.-M. Παῖδες ἄωροι. Poésie Funéraire, vol. I: Textes, Athens 1978 / vol. II: Commentaire, Athens 1982

Vermeule, E. Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry, Berkeley/Los Angeles 1979

*Vernant, J.-P. Mortals and Immortals: Collected Essays, ed. by F. I. Zeitlin, Princeton 1991 (some of these essays were published earlier in his La mort dans les yeux. Figures del l’Autre en Grèce ancienne. Artémis, Gorgô [Paris 1985] and L’individu, la mort, l’amour. Soi-même et l’autre en Grèce ancienne [Paris 1989]

*Willinghöfer, H. Thanatos: Die Darstellung des Todes in der griechischen Kunst der archaischen und klassischen Zeit, Marburg 1996

Yatromanolakis, D. “Simonides fr. eleg. 22 W2: To Sing or to Mourn?”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 120 (1998), 1–11; reprinted in The New Simonides, Oxford, forthcoming.


Abrahamse, D. “Rituals of Death in the Middle Byzantine Period”, The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 29 (1984), 125–34

Agapitos, P. A. “Michael Italikos, Klage auf den Tod seines Rebhuhns”, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 82 (1989), 59–68

——— “Mischung der Gattungen und Überschreitung der Gesetze: Die Grabrede des Eustathios von Thessalonike auf Nikolaos Hagiotheodorites”, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 48 (1998), 119–46

Beck, H.-G. Die Byzantiner und ihr Jenseits: Zur Entstehungsgeschichte einer Mentalität, Munich 1979

Caimi Danelli, A. “Sul genere letterario delle orazioni funebri di Gregorio di Nissa”, Aevum 1 (1979), 140–61

Catafygiotou Topping, E. “Mary at the Cross: St. Romanos’ Kontakion for Holy Friday”, Byzantine Studies/Études Byzantines 4 (1977), 18–37

Dagron, G. “Le christianisme dans la ville byzantine”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31 (1977), 1–25 (pp. 11–19 “Les morts dans la ville”)

Dobrov, G. W. “A Dialogue with Death: Ritual Lament and the θρῆνος Θεοτόκου of Romanos Melodos”, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 35 (1994), 385–405

Fedwick, P. J. “Death and Dying in Byzantine Liturgical Traditions”, Eastern Churches Review 8 (1976), 152–61

Felici, S. (ed.) Morte e immortalità nella catechesi dei padri del III–IV secolo, Rome 1985

Hunger, H. Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, Munich 1978, vol. I, 132–45 (on epitaphioi and monodiai)

Kyriakakis, J. “Byzantine Burial Customs”, Greek Orthodox Theological Review 19 (1974), 37–72

Lambakis, S. Οἱ καταβάσεις στὸν κάτω κόσμο στή βυζαντινὴ καὶ στὴ μεταβυζαντινὴ λογοτεχνία, Athens 1982

Maguire, Η. “The Depiction of Sorrow in Middle Byzantine Art”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31 (1977), 123–74

——— Art and Eloquence in Byzantium, Princeton 1981 (ch. 5: “Lament”)

Reinsch, D. R. “Der Tod des Kaisers: Beobachtungen zu literarischen Darstellungen des Sterbens byzantinischer Herrscher”, Rechtshistorisches Journal 13 (1994), 247–270

Sideras, A. Unedierte byzantinische Grabreden, Thessalonike 1990

*——— Die byzantinischen Grabreden: Prosopographie, Datierung, Überlieferung 142 Epitaphien und Monodien aus dem byzantinischen Jahrtausend, Vienna 1994

——— “Eine unedierte byzantinische Totenklage”, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), 111–56

Trisoglio, F. “La Vergine ed il coro nel ‘Christus Patiens’”, Rivista di Studi Classici 27 (1979), 338–73

Walter, Ch. “Death in Byzantine Iconography”, Eastern Churches Review 8 (1976), 113–27

Post-Byzantine and modern Greece

Alexiou, M. “The Lament of the Virgin in Byzantine Literature and Modern Greek Folksong”, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 1 (1975), 11–40

——— “Modern Greek Folklore and its Relation to the Past: The Evolution of Charos in Greek Tradition”, in S. Vryonis (ed.), The ‘Past’ in Medieval and Modern Greek Culture, Malibu 1978, 221–36

——— “Sons, Wives and Mothers: Reality and Fantasy in Some Modern Greek Ballads”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1 (1983), 73–111

——— “Women, Marriage and Death in the Drama of Renaissance Crete”, in Images of Authority. Papers presented to J. Reynolds on the occasion of her seventieth birthday, ed. Μ. M. Mackenzie and C. Roueché, Cambridge 1989, 1–23

——— “Reappropriating Greek Sacrifice: homo necans or ἄνθρωπος θυσιάζων?”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 8 (1990), 97–123

——— “Literature and Popular Tradition”, in D. Holton (ed.), Literature and Society in Renaissance Crete, Cambridge 191, 239–74

Anagnostopoulos, I. S. Ὁ θάνατος καὶ ὁ Κάτω Κόσμος στὴ δημοτικὴ ποίηση (Ἐσχατολογία τῆς δημοτικῆς ποίησης), Athens 1984

Auerbach, S. “From Singing to Lamenting: Women’s Musical Role in a Greek Village” in E. Koskoff (ed.), Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, New York 1987, 25–43

Bouvier, B. Le mirologue de la Vierge: Chansons et poèmes grecs sur la Passion du Christ, Rome 1976

Caraveli-Chaves, A. Love and Lamentation in Greek Oral Poetry, Ph.D. diss. State University of New York 1978

——— “Bridge Between Worlds: The Greek Women’s Lament as Communicative Event”, Journal of American Folklore 93 (1980), 129–57

——— “The Bitter Wounding: The Lament as Social Protest in Rural Greece”, in J. Dubisch (ed.), Gender and Power in Rural Greece, Princeton 1986, 169–94

Danforth, L. The Death Rituals of Rural Greece, Princeton 1982

de Sike, Y. and M. Hutter “Le chant du destin: Quelques aspects de la conception de la mort en Grèce à travers les ‘miriologues’”, in Les Hommes et la Mort: Rituels Funéraires à travers le Monde [Objets et Mondes 19 (1979)] ed. J. Guitart, Paris 1979, 59–71

Dubisch, J. “Death and Social Change in Greece”, Anthropological Quarterly 62.4 (1989), 189–99

du Boulay, J. “The Greek Vampire: A Study of Cyclic Symbolism in Marriage and Death”, Man 17 (1982), 219–39

Hart, L. K. Time, Religion, and Social Experience in Rural Greece, Lanham, Maryland 1992 (mainly pp. 130–43)

Herzfeld, M. “Performative Categories and Symbols of Passage in Rural Greece”, Journal of American Folklore 94 (1982), 44–57

——— “In Defiance of Destiny: The Management of Time and Gender at a Cretan Funeral”, American Ethnologist 20 (1993), 241–55

Hirschon, R. Heirs to the Greek Catastrophe, Oxford 1989 (ch. 9)

Holst-Warhaft, G. Dangerous Voices: Women’s Laments and Greek Literature, London 1992

Kapsomenos, E. G. “Ὁ θάνατος στὸ δημοτικὸ τραγούδι”, Αρχαιολογία (1984), 64–72

Kenna, Μ. Ε. “Houses, Fields and Graves: Property and Ritual Obligation on a Greek Island”, Ethnology 15 (1976), 21–34

Litsas, F. K. “Rousalia: The Ritual Worship of the Dead”, in The Realm of the Extra-Human: Agents and Audiences, ed. Agehananda Bharah, The Hague 1976, 447–65

Morgan, G. “The Laments of Mani”, Folklore 84 (1973), 265–98

*Motsios, G. Tὸ Ἑλληνικὸ Μοιρολόγι (Προβλήματα ἑρμηνείας καὶ ποιητικῆς τέχνης), vol. 1, Athens 1995

——— “Ταφικὰ ἔθιμα καὶ μοιρολόγια”, Δωδώνη 25 (1996), 83–122

Panourgia, Ν. “Essay Review: Objects at Birth, Subjects at Death,” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 12 (1994), 261–69

——— Fragments of Death, Fables of Identity: An Athenian Anthropogrophy, Madison, Wisconsin 1995

Pilitsis, G. “The Gardens of Adonis in Serres Today”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 3 (1985), 145–66

*Puchner, W. “Tod und Jenseits im Volkslied. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung dergriechischen Tradition”, in id. Studien zum griechischen Volkslied, Vienna 1996, 11–28

Roilos, R. “Ὁ νεκρὸς ὡς δέντρο στὰ ἑλληνικά μοιρολόγια. Ἡ μεταφορὰ παραδοσιακὴ προφορικὴ ποίηση τελετουργικοῦ χαρακτῆρα”, Hellenika 48 (1998), 61–85

Saunier, G. “Adikia”. Le mal et l’injustice dans les chansons populaires grecques, Paris 1979

——— “Charos et l’histoire dans les chansons populaires grecques”, Revue des etudes grecques 95 (1982), 297–321

——— “L’ ‘Apocopos’ de Bergadis et la tradition populaire. Essai de définition d’une méthode comparative”, in Ἄμητος στὴ ηνήμη φώτη Άχοστολόποθλοθ, Athens 1984, 295–309

——— “L’amertume et la mort. πικρός et φαρμάκι dans les chansons populaires grecques. Première approche”, in ΒΟΥΚΟΛΕΙΑ. Mélanges offerts à Bertrand Bouvier, eds. A. D. Lazaridis et al., Genève 1995, 225–41

Savvas, M. “Hecuba’s Sisters: Charon and the Greek Lament”, Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 21 (1995), 49–69

Seremetakis, C. N. “The Ethics of Antiphony: The Social Construction of Pain, Gender, and Power in Southern Peloponnese”, Ethos 18 (1990) 481–511

——— The Last Word: Women, Death and Divination in Inner Mani, Chicago 1991

——— “Durations of Pain: The Antiphony of Death and Women’s Power in Southern Greece”, in ead. (ed.), Ritual, Power and the Body: Historical Perspectives on the Representation of Greek Women, New York 1993, 119–49

Sultan, N. “Women in ‘Akritic’ Song: The Hero’s ‘Other’ Voice”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 9 (1991), 153–70

Selected collections of modem Greek laments

Detorakis, Th. Ἀνέκδοτα Δημοτικὰ Τραγούδια τῆς Κρήτης, Heraklion 1976

Efstathiadis, S. I. Τὰ Τραγούδια τοῦ Ποντιακοῦ Λαοῦ, Thessaloniki 1981

Kazakis, P. D. Θεσσαλικὰ Μοιρολόγια, Larisa 1996

Kassis, K. D. Μοιρολόγια τῆς Μέσα Μάνης. Ἀνέκδοτα κείμενα καὶ ἄγνωστα ιστορικὰ μοιρολογιῶν καὶ οἰκογενειῶν, 2 vols., Athens 1979–1980

——— Μοιρολόγια τῆς Μέσα Μάνης τοῦ 20οῦ αἰῶνα, Athens 1981

——— Τραγούδια Νότιας Πελοποννήσου (Μάνη-Ταΰγετος-Πάρνωνας), Athens 1985

Kontomichis, Ρ. Δημοτικὰ Τραγούδια τῆς Λευκάδας, Athens 1985

Liapis, Β. Ρ. Ἀρβανίτικο μοιρολόγι: Πένθος καὶ ἔθιμα στὴν περιοχὴ βορ.-δυτ. Ἀττικῆς, Ioaninna 1985

Makris, Μ. Δωδεκανησιακὰ Δημοτικὰ Τραγούδια. Ἀνθολογία, Rhodes 1983

Nimas, Th. Α. Δημοτικὰ τραγούδια τῆς Θεσσαλίας, vol. 21 and 2, Thessaloniki 1983

Papadopoullos, Th. Δημώδη Κυπριακὰ ᾌσματα ἐξ ἀνεκδότων συλλογῶν τοῦ ΙΘ αἰῶνος, Nicosia 1975

Tsouderos, G. Ε. Κρητικὰ μοιρολόγια μὲ πλήρη σχόλια καὶ κριτικὴ παρουσίαση, Athens 1976

——— Μεσσηνιακὰ μοιρολόγια (Κυπαρισσία καὶ περίχωρα), Athens 1986

Many lament songs are also published by G. Motsios in his 1995 book cited above. For laments in Greek dialects of Southern Italy, see B. Montinaro’s Canti di pianto e d’ amore dall᾽ antico Salento cited below. An English translation of modern Greek laments is K. Lardas, Mourning Songs of Greek Women, New York/London 1992.

Ethnographic and Comparative Material

Ariès, Ph. Western Attitudes toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present, transl. P. M. Ranum, Baltimore 1974

——— L’homme devant la mort, 2 vols., Paris 1977 (The Hour of our Death, transl. H. Weaver, New York 1981)

Bloch, M. “Death, Women and Power”, in Death and the Regeneration of Life, eds. M. Bloch and J. Parry, Cambridge 1982, 211–30

Bourke, A. “Working and Weeping: Women’s Oral Poetry in Ireland and Scotland: Laments and Work Songs”, Research Papers of UCD Women’s Studies Forum 1988, 2–16

———. “More in Anger than in Sorrow: Irish Women’s Lament Poetry”, in J. Radner (ed.), Feminist Messages: Coding in Women’s Folk Culture, Urbana, Illinois 1993, 160–82

Bremer, J. M., Th. P. J. van den Hout, and R. Peters (eds.) Hidden Futures: Death and Immortality in Ancient Egypt, Anatolia, the Classical, Biblical and Arabic-Islamic World, Amsterdam 1994

Briggs, C. L. “Personal Sentiments and Polyphonic Voices in Warao Women’s Ritual Wailing: Music and Poetics in a Critical and Collective Discourse”, American Anthropologist 95 (1993), 929–57

Cannon, A. “The Historical Dimension in Mortuary Expressions of Status and Sentiment”, Current Anthropology 30 (1989), 437–58

Das, V. “The Work of Mourning: Death in a Punjabi Family”, in Μ. I. White and S. Pollak (eds.), The Cultural Transition, Boston/London/Henley 1986, 179–210

Davidson, Ο. M. Comparative Literature and Classical Persian Poetics, Costa Mesa 2000 (ch. 7: “Women’s Lamentations as Protest in the Shâhnâma”)

Feld, S. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression, Philadelphia 21990

——— “Wept Thoughts: The Voicing of Kaluli Memories”, in R. Finnegan and M. Orbell (eds.), South Pacific Oral Traditions, Bloomington/Indianapolis 1995, 85–108

Finnegan, R. Oral Literature in Africa, Oxford 1970 (ch. on lament)

Green, M. W. “The Eridu Lament”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 30 (1978), 127–67

Honko, L. “Balto-Finnic Lament Poetry”, Studio Fennica 17 (1974), 9–61

——— “The Lament. Problems of Genre, Structure and Reproduction”, in L. Honko and V. Voigt (eds.), Genre, Structure and Reproduction in Oral Literature [Bibliotheca Uralica 5] Budapest 1980, 21–40

Huntington, R. and P. Metcalf Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual, Cambridge 21991

Johnson, E. L. “Grieving for the Dead, Grieving for the Living: Funeral Laments of Hakka Women”, in J. L. Watson and E. S. Rawski (eds.), Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China, Berkeley/Los Angeles 135–60

Kaeppler, A. L. “Poetics and Politic of Tongan Laments and Eulogies”, American Ethnologist 20 (1993), 474–501

Kligman, G. The Wedding of the Dead: Ritual, Poetics, and Popular Culture in Transylvania, Berkeley/Los Angeles 1988

Knudsen, A. “Men Killed for Women’s Songs”, Culture and History 3 (1988), 79–97

Leino, P. “The Language of Laments: The Role of Phonological and Semantic Features in Word Choice”, Studia Fennica 17 (1974), 92–131

LeVine, R. A. “Guisii Funerals”, Ethos 10 (1982), 26–65

Macintosh, F. Dying Acts: Death in Ancient Greek and Modern Irish Tragic Drama, Cork 1994

———. “Tragic Last Words: The Big Speech and the Lament in Ancient Greek and Modern Irish Tragic Drama”, in M. S. Silk (ed.), Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond, Oxford 1996, 414–25

Montinaro, B. Canti di pianto e d’amore dall’antico Salento, Milan 1994

Nenola-Kallio, A. Studies in Ingrian Laments, [FF Communications 234] Helsinki 1982

Obayashi, H. Death and Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions, New York 1992

Ó Coileáin, S. “The Irish Lament: An Oral Genre”, Studia Hibernica 24 (1988), 97–117

Ogede, O. S. “Context, Form and Poetic Expression in Igede Funeral Dirges”, Africa (Journal of the International African Institute, London) 65 (1995), 79–96

Ó Madagáin, B. “Irish Vocal Music of Lament and Syllabic Verse”, in R. O’Driscoll (ed.), The Celtic Consciousness, Mountrath 1981, 311–32

Simms, K. “The Poet as Chieftain’s Widow: Bardic Elegies”, in D. Ó Corráin et al. (eds.), Sages, Saints, and Storytellers, Maynooth 1989, 400–11

Tolbert, E. “The Voice of Lament: Female Vocality and Performative Efficacy in the Finish-Karelian itkuvirsi”, in L. C. Dunn and N. A. Jones (eds.), Embodied Voices: Representing Female Vocality in Western Culture, Cambridge 1994, 179–94

Urban, G. “Ritual Wailing in Amerindian Brazil”, American Anthropologist 90, (1988), 385–400

Watson, R. S. “Chinese Bridal Laments: The Claims of a Dutiful Daughter”, in B. Yung et al. (eds.), Harmony and Counterpoint: Ritual Music in Chinese Context, Stanford, California 1996, 107–29


[ back ] 1. Only a few works published just before 1974 have been included. The bibliography compiled by M. Herfort-Koch, Tod, Totenfürsorge und Jenseitsvorstellungen in der griechischen Antike. Eine Bibliographie, Munich 1992, is useful, especially in terms of funerary inscriptions (67–71).