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Chapter 1. The Prophet Defines
Άργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται ’Αχαιοί·
κρείσσων γάρ βασιλεύς, ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρί χέρηι·
εἴ περ γάρ τε χολον γε καί αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψη,
ἀλλά τε καί μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσση
ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι· σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις.
Social class: basileús, andrì khérēi
The body: katapépsēi, en stḗthessin.
|Time||autêmar||kai metópisthen, óphra teléssēi|
Kótos seems connected with the social status of the basileús.  The phrase andrì khérēi certainly contrasts with basileús, in a way that says something about its relationship to khólos. I suggest that the person of lower class (andrì khérēi) and his superiors are capable of having khólos, while kótos belongs primarily (within the context of this definition) to a basileús.  Indeed, Calchas fears not just anyone’s anger but that of a king. 
καὶ Πρίαμος καὶ λαὸς ἐυμμελίω Πριάμοιο,
Ζεὺς δέ σφιν Κρονίδης ὑψίζυγος, αἰθέρι ναίων,
αὐτὸς ἐπισσείῃσιν ἐρεμνὴν αἰγίδα πᾶσι
τῆσδ’ ἀπάτης κοτέων· τὰ μὲν ἔσσεται οὐκ ἀτέλεστα.
This is the only place in the Iliad where Zeus is explicitly said to have kótos against the Trojans, although we will also see a simile that continues the theme in the Patrocleia.  It is worth elucidating what the kótos of the chief god means here. 
ἔκ τε καὶ ὀψὲ τελεῖ, σύν τε μεγάλῳ ἀπέτισαν,
σὺν σφῇσιν κεφαλῇσι γυναιξί τε καὶ τεκέεσσιν.
In these words, Agamemnon is presenting an eschatology of the Trojan conflict; as Menelaus lies wounded, his brother wonders at the outcome of it all, and his conclusion is that the violation of the oath guarantees Olympian favor so as to link the result with the kótos of Zeus.
τύμβῳ ἐπιθρώσκων Μενελάου κυδαλίμοιο·
“αἴθ’ οὕτως ἐπὶ πᾶσι χόλον τελέσει’ ’Αγαμέμνων,
ὡς καὶ vῦv ἅλιον στρατὸν ἤγαγεν ἐνθάδ’ ’Αχαιῶν,
καὶ δὴ ἔβη οἶκόνδε φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
σὺν κεινῇσιν νηυσί, λιπὼν ἀγαθὸν Μενέλαον.”
ὅς τις ὅδε κρατέει καὶ δὴ κακὰ πολλὰ ἔοργε
Τρῶας, ἐπεὶ πολλῶν τε καὶ ἐσθλῶν γούνατ’ ἔλυσεν·
εἰ μή τις θεός ἐστι κοτεσσάμενος Τρώεσσιν
ἱρων μηνίσας χαλεπὴ δὲ θεοῦ ἔπι μῆνις.
In encouraging Pandarus to take a shot at the leader of the Achaeans, Aeneas mounts the only possible counterargument against Pandarus’s skill as a bowman, namely, that if Diomedes is a god with kótos, then a bowshot is useless. To paraphrase Calchas, a god in kótos will be so until the télos is reached. Ironically, Aeneas assures Pandarus that he should take a shot at the Achaeans’ leader, not only on the grounds that Pandarus is a superior archer (Il. 5.171-73) but also because no god’s kótos is at issue at Troy. For Aeneas, a god’s kótos seems a remote possibility, and he does not conceive of Diomedes in his battle- fury as a god with either kótos or mênis. While he may be correct to think that kótos is remote, there is a narrative gesture toward the destruction of Troy, which in the view of the Iliad’s narrator involves the kótos of a god. 
μή πώς τοι μετόπισθε κοτεσσάμενος χαλεπήνῃ.
Here, when Hermes warns Calypso, three other anger terms (mênis, khalepaínō, and more elusively, ópis) are also drawn into the semantic mix,  but the future occasion of anger is based on the concept of kótos. Thus, Hermes validates Calchas’s special fear of kótos with the aorist participle kotessámenos having a causal force: “because he has come to have anger (kótos), beware lest he take it ill in the future” (the subjunctive khalepḗnēi pointing toward the future). Hermes appears to counsel Calypso not to engage in a grudging or feuding relationship with Zeus.  In this case, metópisthe, along with the future orientation of the subjunctive, takes over the duties belonging to the notion of télos.
Μυpμιδόνεσσιν ἄνασσε. σέθεν δ’ ἐγὼ οὐκ ἀλεγίζω,
οὐδ’ ὄθομαι κοτέοντος.
The power of Agamemnon’s insult here stands out when set beside Calchas’s definition, where kótos is styled both as the anger of a basileús and as the wrath that can be serious trouble in the future. The wrath of a king can involve the entire social body (e.g., the Myrmidons, Il. 1.180), and as his particular anger it can cross space and time to exact its vengeance. Furthermore, the notion of the length of time implies both that kótos endures, and, more important, that it may have as its source something outside the immediate narrative context, projected either back into the distant past or forward into the distant future; here, for example, Agamemnon dismisses a possible kótos from Achilles so as to present an extreme and limiting case, where the anger of grudge, extensive over time, might make the situation extremely volatile so as to be worthy of the worry that Calchas assigned to kótos in Iliad 1.
Δηίφοβος· δὴ γάρ οἱ ἔχεν κότον ἐμμενές αἰεί.
The first point of note is that khólos never occurs with the phrase emmenès aieí. Second, most scholars have interpreted this passage so that kótos is provoked by the death, earlier in the book, of other warriors, especially that of Asius at Il. 13.387-416. Although it is possible to relate a warrior’s fury to an earlier death in the same book, another interpretation, one rather more compatible with Calchas’s definition and with the sense of emmenès aieí, is readily available. Indeed, kótos occurs in an explanatory gár clause referring to an old legend, one cited later in the scholia. At lines 516-17, the scholiast comments on kótos:
Here the source for anger is the rivalry of Helen’s suitors, an interpretation also cited by Eustathius:
Unfortunately, our most ancient authority also suggests that those who propose that Helen loved Idomeneus must be wrong, since he was an old man. Eustathius evinces a more sophisticated sense of Helen’s taste in men than does the scholiast. With Eustathius, I take kótos here as referring to this tradition. Thus, when Idomeneus and Deiphobus meet on the battlefield, an old rivalry can flare up, just as in Iliad 6 an old friendship can be rekindled between Glaucus and Diomedes.